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Close Protection London Close Protection Services London

2020.09.17 13:02 closeprotections Close Protection London Close Protection Services London

Close protection – is a concept that has been known for ages – it has been with us since early days of humankind and now its condition is more than satisfactory. Since time immemorial, people have tried to protect their wealth, assets, as well as their own health, life, and welfare. By means of the transfer of gathered goods, wealthy individuals have been paying other parties to protect them, their families, and possessions from others. As a general rule, young, notably strong, and grim-looking individuals have been considered perfectly suitable for such a job. The idea behind such a choice has been to scare away a potential adversary by taking advantage of the very looks of the guard. The aforementioned state of affairs has been observed for the consecutive ages. Wealthy landowners and kings created their own trusted guards (in ancient times and during the medieval age, those were troops designated to protect the authorities; later on, they were transformed into elite soldiers). Aside from serving representative and managerial purposes, such individuals were required to take care of their master and his beloved ones. In the 11th century England, during the Battle of Hastings, King Harold assembled a group of troops to protect his life and widely understood health condition. One may consider them to be the ancestors of modern bodyguards. As both civilization and society progressed, there were an increasing number of various organizations and people. Therefore, the risk of attack was significantly higher. Numerous authorities attempted to discourage potential aggressors from committing a crime by introducing severe forms of punishment. It must be noted, however, that there was still the question if it was enough to protect high authorities and the wealthy from the effects of outside attacks. The protection-oriented market has been developing to be – at some point – dominated by professional soldiers. The said progression has made it possible for police officers to investigate and deal with common, less dangerous crimes only. Together with technical revolution and the increasing social awareness, the number of citizens not satisfied with the current order skyrockets. It is likely to cause radical groups aiming at the change of the existing ruling paradigm to occur. This in turn may lead to anarchy and the increase in people willing to put their antisocial theories and plans into effect. The latter may start from sabotaging the work of others and demolishing valuable devices, but it may also end up in killings. If such a thing happens, one may openly talk about terrorism. The unusual social situation boosts the demand for personal protection. Both the army and police focus on securing the wellbeing of those of high position in the country. The rest of the threatened society must protect itself. The demand identified above has given rise to a new profession – a security guard. In the past, it was performed in a more or less organized fashion and that is why the effectiveness of arising task achievement varied. The attempt on Tsar’s Alexander the Second life on 1st March 1881 is a perfect exemplification of the formulated thesis. The ruler in question was attacked by the members of Narodnaya Volya at 2:15 P.M. A bomb was thrown under the carriage, but its explosion did not harm either the tsar or the horses. Alexander the Second, together with his companion including secret police representatives, started to assess damages. It was a mistake. At 2:20 P.M, yet another bomb was detonated. Its accuracy was notably higher as it managed to severely injure the tsar. He died relatively quickly, even with professional care he was under. At this point, it must be indicated that the demand for close protection increases. However, the perception of it is in a significant number of cases rather faulty, leading to pitiful outcomes. As it was hundreds of years earlier, modern people tend to hire grim musclemen to protect them, disregarding the fact that their intellectual level and possessed knowledge are negligible. Formerly, a test had to be passed in order for a person to be considered a bodyguard. Unfortunately, it does not hold true anymore. On numerous occasions, we can observe security guards stylized to look like stats of action movies, with the lack of intelligence written all over their faces. To give them justice, such people may also perform exceptionally well – up to the time they encounter a real attack. Unprofessional guards may be employed to protect rock stars or boxers. Real bodyguards of today are, however, highly skilled and motivated. They are trained to prevent rather than to counteract, as it may be too late in the latter case. Such people are capable of estimating potential risk and juxtaposing it with the resources at their disposal that may minimize it. Modern security guards are physically active, as well as skilled in giving first aid and driving a car defensively. They can fight without using any weapon – especially by taking advantage of psychology and persuasion. Such people are proficient in at least two languages and are characterized by an above-average intelligence level. The described model of a security guard is perfectly suited to current conditions and the needs of individuals hiring them.

VIP close protection over the world – organizations specializing in personal protection. One of the most famous and at the same time – the oldest organized bodies dealing with close protection was created in the 19th century. It was the American United States Secret Service. The USSS was created in 1865 as the US Treasury Law Enforcement Agency. Secret Service is the oldest national agency focusing entirely on investigations. Initially, their only task was to protect the economic structure of the country by means of preventing governmental cheques and bonds from being counterfeited. The mission was followed up to 1901, when president William McKinley was attacked in Buffalo (NY state). The assault resulted in appointing the Secret Service by the US Congress to protect the newly elected president, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1906, the Congress finally adopted the act on the responsibility of the Secret Service for the safety of the White House. Since 1950, the protection has been extended from presidents and first ladies only to vice-presidents as well. Before the murder of John F. Kennedy in 1963 and senator Robert F. Kennedy in 1968, the Secret Service had been a relatively small organization, employing as many as 284 agents. The discussed events translated directly into its rapid development. Currently, it is stated that over 5000 employees work for the Secret Service. Separate branches of the organization are located all over the United States, in Puerto Rico, and in other places all over the world (Paris, Lyon, London, Bonn, Rome, Milano, Hong Kong, Montreal, Lefkosa, Bogota, and Manila). The representatives of the organization are both secret agents (serving protection and investigation-related roles), as well as uniformed units responsible for the safety of the White House and diplomatic outposts. They maintain law and order by means of the network of both foot and motorized patrols, as well as of fixed posts. Such people also support other branches of the Secret Service. A wide scope of professional is also employed therein – those are electronics, engineers, communication experts, protection-related professionals, and IT workers. The Secret Service protects the president with his family, vice-president, elected vice-president, candidates for the said posts (from the 120th day before the elections onwards), former president, his children up to 16, as well as heads of other states staying in the USA in order to realize international missions. The unit of the Secret Service liable for taking care about the safety of the president in the White House fulfills its duties in identical uniforms. Due to the said fact, the Secret Service is sometimes referred to as the Uniformed Division. Its tasks also include the protection of president’s mansions, diplomatic outposts in Washington, and places alike located within the borders of the USA.

Another known formation is the Swiss Guard (Latin: Cohors Helvetica) which was for the very first time gathered on 22nd January 1506 by the then pope – Julius II. Its major aim was to protect the spiritual successor of Saint Peter and his palace. The pope wanted to grant himself protection from the enemies and avoid a political murder. In 1512, the Guard secured Vatican against French soldiers. The Defendants of the Church, as the representatives of the discussed formation were also called, had to face the biggest trail while taking care of pope Clemens VII during the invasion of Roman emperor, Charles V. The boldness, discipline, and resourcefulness of the representatives of the Guard made it possible to save the life of the pope, even though about 600 bold men died in the process. To commemorate the event, a solemn vow of the newly appointed guards takes place every year on 6th May. Each of the Swiss guards-to-be holds a banner in his left hand and raises his right hand with the thumb and two other fingers in an upright position (it is the symbol of the Holy Trinity). Then, the new soldiers promise to protect the pope and – to die in his defense if necessary. The representatives of the Swiss Guard are chosen from men between the age of 19 and 25 living in one of Swiss cantons (basing on contracts with Zurich and Lucerne). Each of them has to be at least 174 cm (5 feet and a half inch) tall and be an unmarried practicing Catholic (according to a special letter issued by the local bishop). Candidates for the service are properly trained, including teaching them how to use firearms, side arms, as well as how to defend themselves and establish proper contacts with other people. One of the items of the list is the proper usage of halberd. Currently, the number of soldiers in the Guard is estimated to circulate around 120, including officers, junior, and senior soldiers. They serve in the formation from two to twenty-five years. It must be also indicated at this point that officers and senior sergeants may be granted by the pope the right to enter into a holy matrimony. Aside from their characteristic outfit, soldiers are additionally equipped with halberds and Renaissance swords – those are the symbols of formation’s tradition. Nowadays, they are also fitted with firearms, tear gas, and excellent communication-oriented devices. With its almost five hundred years of heritage, the Swiss Guard is one of the oldest active defense-oriented groups in the world. One may assume that it will last until Switzerland and the Catholic Church exist.

Yet another example of a close protection-focused formation is the Cedrug Order, the major task of which is to take care about the ruler of Tibet – Dalai Lama. It comprises of national spiritual authorities who organized themselves in a form of an order. Thanks to strict upbringing, their physical strength is much higher than the one of secular officials. Therefore, the former are the most trusted soldiers caring about the safety of the leader of the nation. Cedurg School is located in the left wing of Potala – the palace of Dalai Lama, which is in turn situated in the Holy City of Lhasa (eastern Tibet, Kyitsu river valley). Every Tibet citizen is allowed to enroll to the school, but only chosen ones are granted the privilege to join the Order. For several hundred years, there have been a limited number of monks allowed, namely – 175. Only selected candidates have been worthy enough to defend the powerful Dalai Lama. Those are especially bold, tall, and muscular men. The representatives of the Order earned their name in 1959, when they protected the king of Tibet against Chinese adversaries.

One of the biggest organizations in the world established to consociate and train bodyguards is the International Bodyguard Association (IBA). The IBA was established in 1957 in Paris by major Lucien Victor Ott. Major Ott had been closely connected to the French Foreign Legion in Algeria since his early childhood. He had been born and raised in the said country. In 1947, he joined the French Special Forces and took part in France-Indochina war. Furthermore, he was the participant of the battle of Dien-Bien Phu that ended with the defeat of the French forces. He was being injured and captured by Vietminh. After a bold escape, he decided to join forces with the French Military Intelligence (Deuxieme Bureau). Major Lucien Ott got famous due to, inter alia, perfect securing of president Charles de Gaulle against the OAS terrorist organization. Thanks to him, 30 prepared attacks were foiled, 11 of which were aimed directly at the head of the state. After the death of the creator of a modern bodyguard profile, major Ott, one of his students – James G. Shortt took care of the management of the IBA. As a young man, he had joined a cadet school. Later on, he had become landing operation troops officer and a member of the elite SAS (Special Air Service) unit. Moreover, during his service, he also taught soldiers in Afghanistan the art of Mujahedeen war. Currently, he teaches security guards, police officers, and soldiers all over the world in the IBA branches. The main aim of the organization is to properly prepare bodyguards-to-be to properly perform their duties. It is not an entity employing such individuals, but those who have presented exceptional skills may become members of royal, diplomatic, or personal guards recommended by the IBA. Coaches being the representatives of the organization trained bodyguards in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, as well as helped during the Baltic Crisis between 1989 and 1991. The qualifications of the International Bodyguard Association are exceptional, international, and backed by the documentation concerning the organization of training sessions for the military, governmental authorities, police, and private bodyguards all over the world. Such undertakings have been continuously performed since 1957. The IBA also operates and trains willing individuals in Poland. Its branch was established in the said country in 1992. The basic training offered to candidates includes 60 hours of comprehensive preparation divided into six consecutive days. After its completion, the candidates are required to undergo the so-called refresher once a year. It is one of the conditions of the membership in the IBA.

Another training organization worth mentioning is the ESI - Executive Security International. It must be highlighted that it is one of the biggest and most appreciated American companies oriented towards training personal protection guards. Its second name is as follows: Bodyguard Training Academy for Executive, Dignitary and Celebrity Protection. The ESI was formed at the beginning of the 80s by Bob Duggan – martial arts expert and master in Hwarang Do. Its creation had been preceded by the establishment of the very first bodyguard training program by the Martial Arts Academy in Aspen, Colorado. The ESI, being one of the USA’s private schools, offers its students over 2000 hours of education with regard to protection, investigation, data gathering, company and individual security, etc. The training unit of the organization is situated high up in the mountains and is run by skilled professionals. Fun fact – film writer, Tracy Keenan Wynn, cooperates with the ESI. His preeminent task has been to create scenarios of situational exercises. While writing them, the said individual takes advantage of real life situations and attacks, such as assaults on Aldo Moro, John Paul the Second, kidnapping of Hans Martin Schleyer by the RAF (Red Army Faction), and scenarios alike. The ESI collaborates with corporations operating in the close protection branch of industry, as well as with the police and military. The organized training sessions are top secret. No journalists are allowed to enter the Aspen unit. Due to the fact that the ESI is a private school, it may provide professional training to civil, police-related, and military institutions all over the world.

The citizens of Israel have never had the chance to feel safe in their country. The issue of safety has been always treated seriously there. Aside from a constant Israel-Arab world conflict threat, the Israelis have been the subjects of terrorist attracts, both within the borders of their country and outside it. Jews and Americans are most frequent victims of operations organized by highly skilled terrorist groups. Taking into account the impact the Russian mafia has on Israel, the amount of care put on widely understood safety is fully justified. The Israeli Special Forces protect their citizens by means of intelligence and security-oriented undertakings. They host training sessions in various organizations preparing bodyguards, providing the adepts with the experience gained during the service. Most famous units of the said kind in Israel are undoubtedly the ISA - International Security Academy and the ISS - International Security School.

ISA is an international organization established and managed by former leaders, police instructors, and special service members. The very first unit of the ISA was formed in Latvia as a training and advising agency for both governmental and private security guards belonging to the Baltic States and the countries of the former USSR. The fact that the ISA is not exclusively Israeli in character is proved by the figure of the organization chairman, major Urlich Wegener – the creator and very first leader of German Border Control Service called GSG 9. The team of instructors and coaches also has international roots. The credo of the organization is that the preparation of the individuals for the proper protection of others is the key. Such people have to be offered highest quality training, extensive knowledge, and practical background. The ISS training programs are based predominantly on the experiences gained in Israel and in other countries, as well as while training people for the purpose of protecting VIPs over the world. Individuals, governmental authorities, and large-size corporations have been taking advantage of the services provided by the ISA/ISS.

At the moment, civil bodyguards are also involved in close protection. The safety of the individuals hiring them, as well as their possessions depends highly on the qualifications of the former. Quite frequently, those are former policemen, soldiers, or special force members. However, a number of inexperienced adepts would like to start their adventure with personal protection as well. Are they bound to fail in their attempts? It is not always so. The most crucial component affecting the effectiveness of the training is one’s psychological preparation. It is a commonly known fact that it is exceptional in former police officers and troops. However, it is a common belief that one can be trained how to perform the job of a bodyguard, just as it is possible to teach a person how to shoot or be properly engaged in melee combat. It all depends on one’s motivation and willingness to achieve success in the industry. Regulations to date limit the training process of a security guard to the moment of being awarded with a license. In order to perform his tasks properly, such a person has to constantly improve his skills and qualifications.

Phenomena connected with the need of utilization of close protection techniques – Terrorism/Terrorist. It goes without saying that terrorism is one of the biggest threats of today’s world. While analyzing the severity of attacks and their scale, one should not doubt that VIPs should be at all possible occasions protected against the aforementioned forms of assault. In order to assess the threat a given problem pose, its specificity must be identified at first. The notion of „terrorism” was for the first time in history used during the Conference of the International Criminal Law Association in Brussels, in 1930. To date, there have been approximately 200 various definitions of the phenomenon in question. While trying to grasp its characteristic features, one will face a number of limitations and difficulties. One of statements of historian Walter Laqueur has to be touched upon here. While asked why he has been avoiding formulating an unequivocal definition of terrorism, he replied: „For 50 or so years, people are constantly trying to understand the idea behind terrorism. It is a phenomenon having different forms, depending on its place of origin and epoch. How can one find common ground between Russian revolutionists from the end of the 19th century and Al-Qaida anarchists?

Terrorism is mainly based on the utilization of force or threat in order to achieve political or ideological goals. It is hard to say something beyond that. Terrorism is like pornography – it escapes logical classification, but if one sees it – then it becomes apparent.” It is hard to argue with the statement, as it perfectly shows the complexity of the phenomenon in question. For the purpose of this publication, a strict definition of terrorism is not needed. All that is required is the utterance formulated by Walter Laqueur stating that terrorism can be most fully perceived through its manifestations. Terrorist acts are undoubtedly illegal, as they are based on kidnapping people and forcedly taking control over means of communication, economic sabotage, attacks, robberies, demanding ransom to finance organization’s own activity, posing threat to life, health, and freedom of authorities, and kidnapping people from outside the area in order to gain publicity (especially journalists, priests, voluntary workers). One may also indicate the usage of explosives and firearms in public areas and poisoning certain spots by means of radioactive materials and chemicals. Longin Tadeusz Szmidt additionally pointed out that terrorism has always been strictly connected with crafty and hard to identify methods of killing the leaders of nations. While describing the phenomenon of terrorism as a threat for the protected person, one should also point out and indicate its sources. The following are enumerated: - social and economic sources that are directly connected to economic crises, social tensions, social and national discrimination, as well as with the perception of dissonance between the factual reality and the one presented by the media; - historical and political sources. They have their beginning in severe social reactions, demanding full democratization and respecting human rights; - sociological sources that may be related to the atmosphere typical for a given country or the so-called spirit of violence; - psychological sources stating that a significant part of terrorists is highly mentally unstable which is additionally combined with the overly high self-esteem. When it comes to the area of attack, the following are proposed by the experts: - land terrorism (the major threat area for VIPs and the key one for security guards), - air terrorism (personal protection is then entrusted to the authorities managing planes, airports, etc.), and – maritime terrorism (tasks and responsibilities are then similar to air attacks). While taking into account the type of terroristic activities, one may distinguish: bombing-based, nuclear, biological, chemical, technical, cybernetic (attacks on IT networks), and narcotic-oriented (narcotic cartels undertakings) terrorism. The highest threat for VIPs is undoubtedly the first type, namely – bombing-based one. Close protection-oriented undertakings should therefore incorporate the knowledge on paradigms effective during a bomb attack. They will be discussed in further sections of this publication. It is exceptionally difficult to argue with the thesis that we must be protected against terrorism. The same applies to VIPs. The importance of the latter is also worth discussing, as the threat is much higher when a top authority is attacked than when the assault poses threat to a pop star or a wealthy businessman. However, it does not limit the necessity to analyze and counteract terroristic attack threat. It may directly impact the safety of the person a given security guard is responsible for.

Crime is also one of the issues that may endanger protected VIPs. Up to the beginning of the 80s, Poland had been considered to be one of the safest countries in Europe. Law enforcement bodies had been numerous and properly financed there, and crime forecasting, prevention, and penalizing schemes had met all the European standards. However, at the end of the discussed period, the myth of threat-free Poland started to crumble. The effects of crime fighting scene were becoming gradually more negligible. The said state of affairs was predominantly caused by the decreasing trust in law enforcing organizations, as well as by the rapid increase in crimes committed by the citizens. Another important aspect that must be taken into account were economic and political changes taking place in 1989,the liberalization of economic activity, and the emergence of free market. Some individuals possessed unimaginable riches, whereas others were exceptionally poor. In order to survive till the next day, the latter searched for the answer in crimes, leading to the occurrence of the phenomenon commonly known as organized crime. According to official data from 2001, within the borders of Poland, there were over 400 organized crime groups consociating approximately 45 thousand people. They were generating profits by means of goods smuggling, selling stolen cars, producing and marketing narcotics, counterfeiting national currency, commuting bank frauds, selling firearms, and – what is of exceptional importance from the point of view of VIPs – demanding ransom. Criminals induce fear in the society, especially due to using terror and blackmailing. They do not hesitate to kidnap others or kill them. Such individuals resort to brutal treatment, such as beating, torturing, drowning, etc. All those factors combined directly translate into wealthy representatives of the society feeling threatened. What is more, criminals frequently tend to attack the family of a VIP as well, in order to convince him to perform a given action. Therefore, children, wife, and beloved ones of such an individual must be highly protected.

Popularity/Fame –The threat of attack may be in some cases linked to the popularity of a given human being. When a VIP is in isolation, then he may only receive unwanted phone calls or be nagged by photographers. The problem arises when he has to leave his place of permanent residence or workplace, as well as when he is in a publically accessible place. Danger may still be low, but the inquisitiveness of journalist may quickly become overwhelming. Fans or supporters of a given sportsman or artist may cause havoc in order to touch their idol or get hold of any item belonging to him or her. Of course, there is also the risk of serious injuries or even death (let us take John Lennon as an example) – it cannot be neglected. That is why famous and popular individuals should by all means care about their safety. The matter also concerns politicians who are widely recognizable and controversial. In politics, there are no limitations. Opponents may even resort to killing a representative of the other side to impose his or her right on others. Elected politicians tend to have close protection, but care should be additionally exercised to care about those running in elections. Such VIPs may be ridiculed by the crowd or the opposition (by throwing eggs or pouring water over the candidate), leading to the end of their political career. The role of security guards should in the aforementioned cases not be limited to physical protection only. They must also keep information about VIP’s family, realized projects, and operation profile confidential. The image of a famous person highly depends on the bodyguards being in his immediate surroundings. The manner of their operation, professionalism, and knowledge are top priorities there.

Attack on person – By definition, attack on person is the attempt to kill someone, steal his or her possessions, as well as to kidnap him or her. The criminal action in question has a long history, as assaults have been made throughout the consecutive ages. Their goal has been to achieve a political, economic, or cultural aim. Attacks on person may lead to tremendous changes in the society, which is perfectly depicted by the killing of John Kennedy and Icchak Rabin. In the majority of cases, however, such an attack does not have significantly far-reaching consequences. In order to be effective, bodyguards must answer themselves the following questions – why do criminals attack? How do they attack? How may the assault look like? Therefore, it is highly advised to specify the motif, methods utilized, and consecutive stages of one and every attack on person. Taking into account motifs, one must bear in mind that all the assaults have their agenda. No attack is made voluntarily, without forethought. In the following sections, most common causes of the aforementioned activity are going to be enumerated:

Revolutionary or political ones – organized groups (frequently consisting of fanatics) attack others in order to force the society to change the existing system or overthrow the current government (in the attempt to choose a new one). Their victims are often the authorities ruling the country. The attackers, who follow their revolutionary or political agenda, try to win the sympathy of other representatives of the society. Long before the planned attack itself, they distribute leaflets blaming current rulers for the widespread injustice. According to their belief, the elimination of the elites in power would bring positive outcomes for the whole country. Such an action was performed in Armenia in 1999, where members of the government were shot dead during one of their meetings. The terrorists informed that their death would improve the national situation.

Economic – terrorists claim that their potential victim is responsible for the poor economic condition of the country, company, or a group of people. In the majority of cases, economic attacks take place in countries where there are extreme disproportions between the wealthy and the poor. It must be taken into consideration, however that it is not always the case, as the assessment of the attackers tend to be highly subjective. Quite frequently, the cause of the assault is the personal conviction that the unsatisfying economic condition of the terrorist is the result of actions performed by the victim. It pushes the attacker into thinking that killing him would aid the situation.

Personal – In this case, the wrongdoers are motivated to make an attack due to jealousy, vengeance or other personal causes. Those people in many cases have notable personality disorders, manifesting themselves especially in the inability to control their behavior. The aforementioned state also leads to the failure to distinguish reality from fiction. A perfect exemplification of the motif in question is shooting Zuzanna Leśniak and an artist – Andrzej Zaucha by Yves Goulais in 1991. The trigger there was jealousy.

Ideological – The terrorist is convinced that the victim chosen by him has been threatening the values and principles followed by the attacker. The said rules are often of significant importance for both the group he belongs to and for himself personally. Ideological attacks on a person may be religious or social in character. The first case is oriented towards killing a religious person in the attempt to make it impossible for him to achieve his goals. The second scenario relates to the willingness to eliminate the leader of a given social group. Quite frequently, the additional agenda is to make the organization the terrorist is a part of more memorable and popular in the media. Free publicity is an additional benefit then.

Psychological – The most commonplace group of attacks. Modern psychology claims that every person using firearms, stabbing others with a knife, or taking advantage of explosives has been struggling with mental problems. The motif is of negligible importance, as the attacker may justify his actions with revolutionary, economic, or personal goals, but the fact is that the driving force is the inability to perceive the world correctly. The assassination of Bill Clinton in 1994 illustrates the above bluntly. Francisco Martin Duran stated that he had attacked Clinton to destroy the mist connecting him to an alien entity. Apparently, Duran wanted to eliminate the mist in order to save the world. Attacks considered as crimes may be triggered by a myriad of factors. Among them,there are: - clashes between the representatives of a crime organization, willingness to demonstrate one’s power or threat the victim (attempt to force the latter to pay ransom or forget about debts), - desire to kill suspects that may endanger one’s business, - attempt to exert pressure on certain individuals or to threaten them for their professional achievements (relates to, inter alia, attorneys and tax collectors).

Attack methods to be considered by security guards. Close range attack. It may be performed by means of utilization of: - firearms, - melee weapon (knife, bayonet, dagger), - chemical substance (for example: toxic substance, such as hydrochloric acid). There are no exceptional skills needed to successfully attack a person, as almost everybody can use a knife or a dagger to a satisfactory extent. The same goes with firearms, the utilization of which is as difficult as driving a car. The aforementioned types of weapons can be transported to the place of the assault with ease. The characteristic feature of this attack type is the fact that the wrongdoer is situated maximally several centimeters away from the victim. The difficulty here is directly connected with the inability to improvise the act. It must be preceded by a prolonged observation of the subject, learning his or her customs, daily routine, places he or she visits, and the protection type he or she uses. Only after drawing proper conclusions from the examination, can the terrorist attack the victim. Marek Papała, a police commissioner, was killed due to a close range attack in 1998, Warsaw.

Long-range attack – in this case firearms are often used, especially rifles and carbines. It is not an uncommon situation to learn about an attacker who has used a sniper rifle fitted with professional laser and optical aiming devices. The distance between the wrongdoer and the subject of the attack is commonly higher than 5 meters. The former must also be much more skilled than a close range attacker, as he has to be capable of utilizing a professional gun in an effective manner. The death of John Kennedy in Dallas on 22nd November 1963 was the result of the attack form in question. Lee Harvey Oswald, who was a former marine soldier, shot his subject from a storage located several meters away from president’s cavalcade. To perform the act, he used Mannlicher-Carcano, cal. 6.5 mm rifle. The proficiency of the attacker was proven by the fact that he fired three shots and only one of them missed the target.

Attack with explosives – it requires notable skills, for the wrongdoers has to build a bomb before performing the attack. He must also know how and where to plant the explosive, how to situate the fuse inside and where to detonate it. Such a person also has to be familiar with the effects of explosion. Assault on Margaret Thatcher on 12th October 1984 showed how patient and clever can an attacker taking advantage of explosives be. Patrick Magee, a member of Irish Republican Army, moved into the hotel where the British prime minister was expected to stay 24 days before the said fact. Every single day, he worked meticulously destroying the wall and placing a 50-kilogram explosive inside the hole. The bomb was then fitted with a timer. It exploded when Miss Thatcher was considered to wash herself in the bathroom – the attacker was perfectly acquainted with her customs. She would have died if she had not received a document to be read. The explosive was detonated five floors above the bathroom located in the apartment of the „Iron Lady”. Six other people died as a result, but the suspect managed to avoid the clever assassination.

If you are looking to hire close protection in London do not wait and contact us immiedletly for professional bodyguard services in London.
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2020.09.15 23:01 StevenStevens43 From Rud Hud Hudibras to Meryptah

From Rud Hud Hudibras to Meryptah
Rud Hud Hudibras:
Rud Hud Hudibras was king of Loegria.
The first sensational claim about Rud Hud Hudibras, is that he founded kaerreint (Catnerbury).
Rud Hud Hudibras
Rud Hud Hudibras (Welsh: Run baladr bras) was a legendary king of the Britons) as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the son of King Leil and ruled during a civil war.
During the waning years of Leil's reign, the kingdom of the Britons became unstable, and civil war broke out. Rud Hud Hudibras became king after his father's death and reigned for 39 years, ending the civil war and restoring peace to the kingdom. During his reign, he founded Kaerreint, later renamed Canterbury by the Angles.
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Canterbury Arms
Durovernum Cantiacorum:
Now whilst there is nothing to support the claim that there was a settlement founded here by Rud Hud Hudibras, there is also nothing to contradict the claim.
There is believed to have been a tribe known as the Cantiaci which settled in this area in a pre-roman settlement known as Durovernum Cantiacorum.
The Cantiaci or Cantii were an Iron Age Celtic people living in Britain before the Roman conquest, and gave their name to a civitas of Roman Britain. They lived in the area now called Kent, in south-eastern England. Their capital was Durovernum Cantiacorum, now Canterbury
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And i am sure it goes without saying, that evidence of inhabitation in this area, dates all the way back to the Pale-olithic era.
Early history
The Canterbury area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Lower Paleolithic axes, and Neolithic and Bronze Age pots have been found in the area.[11]
Link for photo
Canterbury City walls
The earliest known attestation for Cantium, comes from Julius Caeser in 55 BC, whom actually spoke quite fondly of the Cantiums.
Julius Caesar landed in Cantium in 55 and 54 BC, the first Roman expeditions to Britain. He recounts in his De Bello Gallico v. 14:[citation needed]
"Ex his omnibus longe sunt humanissimi qui Cantium incolunt, quae regio est maritima omnis, neque multum a Gallica differunt consuetudine.""Of all these (British tribes), by far the most civilised are they who dwell in Kent, which is entirely a maritime region, and who differ but little from the Gauls in their customs."
Link for photo
Apparently, he also founded Kaerguenit (Winchester).
Rud Hud Hudibras
He is also said to have founded Kaerguenit (Winchester)
Link for photo
Winchester coat of Arms
Now, Winchester, also has evidence of inhabitation dating back to pre-historic times.
But Winchester also has an oppidum, which is an Iron age settlement.
The area around Winchester has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with three Iron Age hillforts, Oram's Arbour, St. Catherine's Hill, and Worthy Down all nearby. In the Late Iron Age, a more urban settlement type developed, known as an oppidum
Link for photo
British Late Iron-age:
The late British Iron age began in approximately 100 BC.
Therefore it would appear archaeologists do not believe the Oppidum to be any older than 100 BC.
Hill forts.
However, three Iron-age hill forts were also mentioned.
And according to the periodisation link above, the British Iron-age dates back to beginnings in 800 BC.
Now no date is actually given for what appears to be the oldest of the Iron age hill-forts, St Catherines Hill.
So could be anywhere between 100 BC, and 800 BC.
St Catherines Hill
St. Catherine's Hill is a 43-hectare (110-acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest on the outskirts of Winchester in Hampshire.[1][2] It is managed by Hampshire and Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust,[3] and most of it is an Iron Age hillfort, which is a Scheduled Monument.[4]
Link for photo
St Catherines hill
Paladur Castle:
So, you can decide for yourself whether or not we found evidence to support the claim.
Certainly did not find anything that contradicts the claim.
But that is not all.
Apparently Rud Hud Hudibras also founded Paladur Castle, in what would today be Shaftesbury.
Rud Hud Hudibras
and Paladur Castle (Shaftesbury).
Link for photo
Shaston 12
Caer Palladour:
Whilst some historians dismiss this legend as "mere invention", it does not take away the fact, that even today, "Caer Palladour", is an alternative name for Shaftesbury.
The original Celtic name is first recorded in Medieval Welsh literature as Caer Vynnydd y Paladr (The Mountain Fort/City of the Spears)[2] and Thomas Gale records the name as Caer Palladour in his work of 1709.[3] Though "Palladour" was described by one 19th-century directory as "mere invention", it has continued to be used as a poetic and alternative name for the town.[4]
Link for photo
Melbury hill
Anyway, legend places Rud Hud Hudibras reign around the same period Capys was king in Alba Longa.
Rud Hud Hudibras
Geoffrey places Rud Hud Hudibras' reign during the time Capys was king in Alba Longa and Haggai, Amos), Joel), and Azariah) were prophesying in Israel.
Given his name, i am surprised they are not placing his reign alongside Robin hood.
Link for photo
Robin laughing
Now, Capys is said to have reigned from 963 to 935 BC.
Capys, mythological king of Alba Longa and descendant of Aeneas. Said to have reigned from 963 to 935 BC.[3]
Link for photo
,[4] in the Etruscan language the word capys meant \"hawk\" or \"falcon\" (or possibly \"eagle\" or \"vulture\").
Fiachu Finscothach:
Now, i would just like to look at other events happened around this given period.
Fiachu Finscothach whom reigned as high king of Ireland 975–955 BC, was sent in to exile, but returned as head of a "black fleet".
Fiachu Finscothach
Fíacha Fínscothach, son of Sétna Airt, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. His father became High King after killing the previous incumbent, Rothechtaid mac Main, in single combat at Cruachan in defence of Fíachu. Fíachu went into exile, but returned at the head of a "black fleet", and, with the assistance of Muinemón,
Flag of Cornwall:
Now i just wonder if the words "Black fleet" give a clue as to where he went in to exile? And i wonder if it was in the lands of Queen Gwendolans descendants in Cornwall, desperate to ally themselves with others, for their fight against Loegria.
Link for photo
Flag of Cornwall
Prophets of Israel:
Now, surprisingly, i am not going to bother verifying the prophets of Israel.
Quite simply, during the Egyptian 18th dynasty, which pre-dates the prophets of Israel by some considerable margin, there was a High priest of Ptah, named Ptahmose.
Thutmose was an ancient Egyptian vizier) under Amenhotep III, during the 18th Dynasty.
As vizier of the North (i.e. of Lower Egypt), Thutmose officiated from Memphis, while his southern counterpart was based in Thebes. He was married to Tawy, and had at least two sons: Ptahmose, who became High Priest of Ptah
Ptahmose reigned under two pharoahs, Thutmose IV, and Amenhotep III.
Ptahmose was High Priest of Ptah in Memphis during the time of Thutmose IV and in the beginning of the reign of Amenhotep III.
14th Century BC:
Just to get a rough idea of what period we are discussing, Thutmose IV reigned from approximately 1401 – 1391 BC .
Thutmose IV
Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian: ḏḥwtj.msj(.w) "Thoth is born")[1] was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC.
Link for photo
Thutmose IV
High priest of Ptah:
Now, the job description of a high priest of Ptah, pretty much translates to "chief architect".
High priest of Ptah
The High Priest of Ptah was sometimes referred to as "The Greatest of the Directors of Craftsmanship" (wr-ḫrp-ḥmwt). This title refers to Ptah as the patron god of the craftsmen.[1]
Link for photo
Temple of Ptah
Now, Thutmose also had another son, named Meryptah, whom also became a vizier.
Meryptah likely became the first ever vizier, to be awarded with the title "prophet", in his job description, amongst his other titles, such as chief steward of the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III, which i imagine translates to, "architect of the construction of Amenhotep III's resting place.
He was married to Tawy, and had at least two sons: Ptahmose, who became High Priest of Ptah in Memphis, and Meryptah, who later assumed many titles such as prophet and chief steward of the Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III.[1]#cite_note-1)
Link for photo
Temple of Amenhotep III
For reasons connected with above, i have no motivation to go to 800 or 900 BC in order to verify the existence of Prophets.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.09.15 21:18 shnidzenegger How useful is Biology for Archaeology?

Hi, I'm a 16 year old from the UK and I just started my lower sixth term, having picked Maths, History, Ancient Greek and Biology as my A levels (Idk what this is the equivalent of in the USA, but in the UK its like the last 2 years before Uni). I have also done a Latin GCSE, which I still remember most of.
My issue last year was picking between Latin and Biology, but since I thought I wouldn't be going too heavy on classics, I chose my favourite one out of Greek and Latin. The reason I was considering Bio in the first place is because I was (and still am) interested in the evolutionary and more biological side of anthropology rather than the modern social-science-type stuff. I also rly like Biology and find it interesting anyway. Back then I didn't think much of dropping Latin, but having now realised that I spent so long learning a language, only to just get a grade and forget it, I feel really bad about it. Not only sentimentally, but doing Latin also has its advantages, as I'm guessing in Archaeology some of the most abundant sources are Roman or Latin.
Anyway I've talked to teachers about switching my subjects now, which would still be possible at this stage. My biology teacher said that most of the course won't really help with evolutionary anthropology, but there are a few important key biological concepts that are good to have an understanding of, and some parts of the course do cover ecology and evolution etc. My options now are to either carry on with Biology (and I would try to keep my Latin language going on the side - my classics teachers said they could get me private lessons to help me out) OR I could completely switch bio for Latin and if I needed to know some evolutionary anthropology, I could just read up on it.
So my question would be:
How useful is biology in not just anthropology, but also archaeology? (When it comes to dating and stuff, I think its mostly chemistry involved, but I've also heard that there's a bit of Bio)
Any general advice regarding my situation would also be greatly appreciated :)
(I know I have quite a workload with 4 A-levels, but I am quite determined, and I could at least try to fit some extra stuff in. Also dropping Maths, History or Greek is not happening, sorry)
submitted by shnidzenegger to Archaeology [link] [comments]

2020.09.15 21:17 shnidzenegger How useful is Biology (A level) for Archaeology and Anthropology?

Hi, I'm a 16 year old from the UK and I just started my lower sixth term, having picked Maths, History, Ancient Greek and Biology as my A levels (Idk what this is the equivalent of in the USA, but in the UK its like the last 2 years before Uni). I have also done a Latin GCSE, which I still remember most of.
My issue last year was picking between Latin and Biology, but since I thought I wouldn't be going too heavy on classics, I chose my favourite one out of Greek and Latin. The reason I was considering Bio in the first place is because I was (and still am) interested in the evolutionary and more biological side of anthropology rather than the modern social-science-type stuff. I also rly like Biology and find it interesting anyway. Back then I didn't think much of dropping Latin, but having now realised that I spent so long learning a language, only to just get a grade and forget it, I feel really bad about it. Not only sentimentally, but doing Latin also has its advantages, as I'm guessing in Archaeology some of the most abundant sources are Roman or Latin.
Anyway I've talked to teachers about switching my subjects now, which would still be possible at this stage. My biology teacher said that most of the course won't really help with evolutionary anthropology, but there are a few important key biological concepts that are good to have an understanding of, and some parts of the course do cover ecology and evolution etc. My options now are to either carry on with Biology (and I would try to keep my Latin language going on the side - my classics teachers said they could get me private lessons to help me out) OR I could completely switch bio for Latin and if I needed to know some evolutionary anthropology, I could just read up on it.
So my question would be:
How useful is biology in not just anthropology, but also archaeology? (When it comes to dating and stuff, I think its mostly chemistry involved, but I've also heard that there's a bit of Bio)
Any general advice regarding my situation would also be greatly appreciated :)
(I know I have quite a workload with 4 A-levels, but I am quite determined, and I could at least try to fit some extra stuff in. Also dropping Maths, History or Greek is not happening, sorry)
submitted by shnidzenegger to AskAnthropology [link] [comments]

2020.09.15 04:54 StevenStevens43 From Soloman to Leil

From Soloman to Leil
From Solomon to Leil:
Legendary history:
In this article, i am going to attempt to show just how what we "think" is pseudo-history, and mythology, might actually hold some of the answers we have all being seeking.
I am going to begin with a legendary king from Albany, named Leil.
Leil was a legendary king of the Britons) as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the son of King Brutus Greenshield.
Now, a rather sensational claim is made, from the get go.
Apparently Leil founded the City of Caerleil fort (modern Carlisle).
He founded Carlisle, Cumbria (Caerleil: Fort of Leil)
Link for photo
Now, whilst it cannot be confirmed that the City dated as far back as the time of Leil, what we can find out, certainly does not contradict the possibility, that it may.
It was regarded as perhaps Albions most powerful pre-roman cities, and was named "Luguwaljon".
It is thought to have been burned down by the Romans, and replaced.
Ancient history
According to Boethius and John of Fordun, Carlisle existed before the arrival of the Romans in Britain and was one of the strongest British) towns at the time. In the time of the emperor Nero, it was said to have burned down.[10][11] The Roman settlement was named Luguvalium, based on a native name that has been reconstructed as Brittonic *Luguwaljon, "[city] of Luguwalos", a masculine Celtic given name meaning "strength of Lugus".[12]
Link for photo
Roman invasion of Albany
25 years:
Now, Leil supposedly reigned for 25 years, covering the period of Solomon building the temple of Jerusalem, and Silvus Epitus reigning as king of Alba Longa. (Likely translates as king of Italy and Gaul)
He reigned for twenty-five years until he grew old and feeble. His inactivity sparked a civil war, during which he died. He was succeeded by his son Rud Hud Hudibras.
Geoffrey asserts that Leil reigned at the time when Solomon built the Temple in Jerusalem and Silvus Epitus was king of Alba Longa.
Silvus Epitus:
So i am desperate to find out when Silvus Epitus reigned as king of Alba longa.
Between 934-921 BC apparently.
Capetus Silvius
Capetus or Capetus Silvius (said to have reigned 934-921 BC)[1](Latin: Căpĕtŭs Sĭluĭŭs) was a descendant of Aeneas and one of the legendary Latin kings of Alba Longa. He was the son of Capys, and the father of Tiberinus, after whom the Tiber river was named.
Link for photo
Carpetus Liliii
Ollom Fotla:
Now, i am desperate to find out what other rulers ruled during this period.
Well, in Ireland, a high king named Ollom Fotla was the first high king to Install Parliament in Tara.
Ollom Fotla
He is said to have instituted the Feis Temrach or Assembly of Tara. Keating describes the Feis Temrach as an assembly like a parliament, at which the nobles, scholars and military commanders of Ireland gathered on Samhain every three years to pass and renew laws and approve annals and records. The Assembly was preceded and followed by three days of feasting.[2] He also built a structure at Tara called the Múr nOlloman or Scholar's Rampart.
Link for photo
Now, i will go to this Solomon.
According to Celtic legends, we are looking for an Israelite that reigned sometime around 934 BC- 921 BC.
So let us find out a little bit about this Solomon first.
Solomon (/ˈsɒləmən/; Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה‎, Shlomoh),[a] also called Jedidiah (Hebrew יְדִידְיָהּ‎ Yedidyah), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Old Testament,[3] Quran, and Hadiths, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of the United Kingdom of Israel) who succeeded his father, King David.[4] The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are about 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as king of the United Monarchy, which broke apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel) and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone.[5]
Link for photo
Ok, so we are looking for someone that was apparently king of Israel.
We are also looking for someone that apparently built quite a few temples, and monuments.
Construction projects
For some years before his death, David was engaged in collecting materials for building a temple in Jerusalem as a permanent home for Yahweh and the Ark of the Covenant. Solomon is described as undertaking the construction of the temple, with the help of an architect, also named Hiram, and other materials, sent from King Hiram of Tyre.
After the completion of the temple, Solomon is described in the biblical narrative as erecting many other buildings of importance in Jerusalem. For 13 years, he was engaged in the building of a royal palace on Ophel (a hilly promontory in central Jerusalem). This complex included buildings referred to as:
Link for photo
Solomons temple
931 BC:
However, the bible gives the latest date of 931 BC, and i can find nothing conclusive to support this.
So let's try and corroborate the dates given by Celtic legends, with known contemporary history, and find out what we can achieve.
Let is begin with a Pharoah that reigned around this period.
Shoshenq I:
Shoshenq I was an Egyptian pharoah, of Libyan descent, that reigned between 943 BC, and 922 BC.
So already it is not looking promising, as he does actually reign during the period stated by the Hebrew bible.
Though it might be looking slightly promising, in that, he does appear to have been mentioned in the bible.
Shoshenq I
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq, Tamazight : ⵛⵛⵏⵈ cecneq[citation needed], reigned c. 943–922 BC)—also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I[note 1]—was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt. Of Meshwesh ancestry,[2] Shoshenq I was the son of Nimlot A, Great Chief of the Ma, and his wife Tentshepeh A, a daughter of a Great Chief of the Ma herself. He is presumed to be the Shishak mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, and his exploits are carved on the Bubastite Portal at Karnak.
Link for photo
Sphinx of Shoshenq I
Now let us try and find some things which might support Shoshenq I, being king Solomon.
He did have a successful campaign in Canaan, and i think we have pretty much covered in previous threads, that for the best part of ancient Egyptian history, Canaan was an Egyptian vassal state.
So, this likely would make Shoshenq I, king of Canaan.
since he may well have lived for up to two to three years after his successful campaign in Canaan
Link for photo
Raid on Judah:
Now apparently, the bible attributes Shishaq to invading Judah, and apparently a stele discovered in Tel Megiddo does confirm that in fact this raid was conducted by Shoshenq I.
So, we might be on to something here after-all?
Biblical shishak
According to these passages, Jeroboam fled from Solomon and stayed with Shishaq until Solomon died, and Shishaq invaded Judah, mostly the area of Benjamin, during the fifth year of the reign of Rehoboam, taking with him most of the treasures of the temple built by Solomon. Shoshenq I is generally attributed with the raid on Judah: this is corroborated with a stele discovered at Tel Megiddo.

Now, it does begin to look a lot more promising actually.
Shoshenq I pretty much completely subjugated Israel, with a heavy handed military foreign policy.
Foreign policy
He pursued an aggressive foreign policy in the adjacent territories of the Middle East, towards the end of his reign. This is attested, in part, by the discovery of a statue base bearing his name from the Lebanese city of Byblos, part of a monumental stela from Megiddo) bearing his name, and a list of cities in the region comprising Syria, Philistia, Phoenicia, the Negev, and the Kingdom of Israel), among various topographical lists inscribed on the walls of temples of Amun at al-Hibah and Karnak. The fragment of a stela bearing his cartouche from Megiddo has been interpreted as a monument Shoshenq erected there to commemorate his victory.[19] Some of these conquered cities include ancient Israelite fortresses such as Megiddo, Taanach and Shechem.
Link for photo#/media/File:Kingdoms_of_Israel_and_Judah_map_830.svg)
Kingdom of Israel
Osorkon I, 922 BC - 887 BC:
However, i am not convinced.
I would actually rather look at his son, Osorkon I.
What was Silvius's reign again? Between 934-921 BC apparently.
Osorkon I is 922 BC.
So, sneaks in, and no more.
Osorkon I
Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 22nd Dynasty. Osorkon's territory included much of the Levant.
The Osorkon Bust found at Byblos is one of the five Byblian royal inscriptions.
Link for photo
Osorkon I
And just to confirm those dates.
The son of Shoshenq I and his chief consort Karomat A, Osorkon I was the second king of ancient Egypt's 22nd Dynasty and ruled around 922 BC – 887 BC.
Osorkon I also built many temples, in the lands left to him by his father.
Osorkon I's reign is known for many temple building projects and was a long and prosperous period of Egypt's History.
So, just like Solomon the temple builder that had a Dad named David, that left him Israel.
Osorkon I, the temple builder, also had a Dad named Shoshenq I, that also left him Israel.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.09.14 21:44 seewhyKai Arena Leaderboards: July - August 2020; Overlap of Ashes of Outland and Scholomance Academy

PSA - Read a post I made back in July. Yes, it is a mess. - Update: Europe Leaderboard for July-Aug was added as a separate table to the US and all Europe websites. Europe posts for prior seasons/months are still incorrect.

There seems to be a huge issue with how all the Europe based Hearthstone websites are being run. Towards the end of July, I noticed that a fair amount of "Top Hearthstone Players"/"Arena Leaderboards" posts (likely all news blogs posts though) were being retroactively changed.
Many of the Arena rankings on Europe pages have been replaced with those from Americas. I will do a deeper dive soon. I suspect Blizzard is consolidating website teams.
The Arena Leaderboards for the July through August 2020 season were published on September 14, 2020 10:00 PDT
The Blizzard Entertainment account made a post on the official forums at 10:00 PDT.
The official Hearthstone Latin America Twitter tweeted leaderboard news blog post at 11:50 PDT
The official Hearthstone Brasil Twitter tweeted leaderboard news blog post at 11:51 PDT.
Once again, the official US and global Hearthstone Twitter did not make any tweet regarding Arena.
The last Arena rankings to be published were for April-June 2020, the start of the new Hearthstone Year and the release of Ashes of Outland. That season spanned April 8 10:00 PDT to June 30 9:59:59 PDT. Ashes of Outland launched on April 7 around 10:00 PDT along with a new Arena Rotation which happened to be Standard sets.
The July - August season was from July 1 at 10:00 PDT to August 31 at 9:59:59 PDT. Scholomance Academy launched on August 6, 2020 around 10L00 PDT. This means this Arena season has 2 expansion cycles overlapping for the first time in a while. This season structure also spanned approximately 2 months, much like how seasons should have been during the Arena Rotation format. This is compared last Arena seasons's 2.5+ month season duration.
The rankings, as stated in the Americas news blog:
Below are the Arena leaderboards for July 1, 2020 – August 31, 2020. Arena rankings reflect players’ best 30 consecutive runs throughout a season. The players featured below have exhibited top-notch deckbuilding skills, in-the-moment decision making, and unyielding dedication to achieve a most noteworthy feat!
For an Arena run to be included in this season, its end time must have been between July 1 at 10:00 a.m. and August 31 at 9:59:59 a.m.

Arena leaderboards for July 1 10:00 PDT – August 31, 2020 9:59:59 PDT

Update: Sometime September 14 before 17:30 PDT, the Europe leaderboard was added as a separate table to the US website. As the GB/UK website and most other Europe websites are mirrors of the US site, those news blog posts also now include the Europe leaderboard.
This is the third time that Blizzard has published actual start/end dates with times - no timezones but I am pretty confident that everything below is accurate.
The dates/times on Europe are the exact same as the dates/times on Americas. The Europe dates/times are almost certainly Pacific Daylight Time PDT. The Europe region server (in-game) is based on Central European Summer Time, CEST which is 9 hours ahead of PDT. Note that the "main" Europe site is the UK website which is 1 hour behind CEST.
Asia dates/times are listed as between July 2 at 2:00 AM and September 1 at 1:59:59 AM. The Asia region server is based on Korea Standard Time, KST which is 16 hours ahead of PDT.
For those curious, here are the threads and spreadsheets for prior seasons:
Any questions, comments, etc just leave as a reply.
submitted by seewhyKai to ArenaHS [link] [comments]

2020.09.13 21:09 StevenStevens43 Learn Albannach. Learn your history

Learn Albannach. Learn your history
According to legend, Brutus became the first King of Britain in the year 1112 BC, and he settles in a city on the banks of the River Thames which would later become known as Trinovantum, and even later, London.
Historia regum britannia
Brutus then founds a city on the banks of the River Thames, which he calls Troia Nova, or New Troy. The name is in time corrupted to Trinovantum, and the city is later called London.[13] He creates laws for his people and rules for twenty-four years. After his death he is buried in Trinovantum, and the island is divided between his three sons: Locrinus (England), Albanactus (Scotland) and Kamber (Wales).
Link for photo
Albania flag
Now, you may wonder why i am waving the Albanian flag, to depict the Island of Britain. Should i not be waving the Union jack?
Well no, because at it's roots, the island of Britain was originally named Albion, which derives from the etymological Gaelic root word "Albio", and Albania, derives from the exact same root word.
You see, when the Greeks Latinised the word to Albion, and we think this means that the name Albion, comes from the Greeks, and therefore that means the belief that there is no earlier reference available for the island of Britain being referred to as Albion, and thus everything before this Greek attestation must be purely mythological, is completely wrong, and misunderstanding the evolution of language.
Quite simply, the Greeks got the the word Albion, from the already existing Gaelic word, "Albio".
All the Greeks done was Latinise the word, to better suit their dialect, and writing system.
Simple as that.
The oldest attestation of the toponym comes from the Greek language (Ἀλβίων)[6] and Latinised as Albiōn (genitive Albionis), derives from the Proto-Celtic nasal stem \Albi̯iū* (oblique \Albiion-) and survived in Old Irish as *Albu (genitive Albann). The name originally referred to Britain as a whole, but was later restricted to Caledonia (giving the modern Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland, Alba). The root *albiio- is also found in Gaulish and Galatian albio- ("world") and Welsh elfydd (elbid, "earth, world, land, country, district"). It may be related to other European and Mediterranean toponyms such as Alpes, Albania
Link for photo
The Alan family:
Now, take a moment to go and read my article on the Alan family, and you might find out just how influential and widespread the royal family were.
At a stretch, the Alans may have even sat on the Egyptian throne for a short period around the 500's BC.
Now, in the legends of Brutus of Troy, Brutus even claims to be an "Alan".
What actually appears to be happening here, is that Albio' and his sons, Locrinus, Albanactus, and Kamber, are being Latinised to, Brutus, Francus, Alamanus and Romanus.
The Romans are simply re-writing Albino history in to their own language, and this is leading to confusion.
Historia Britonnum
Yet another Brutus, son of Hisicion, son of Alanus the first European, also traced back across many generations to Japheth, is referred to in the Historia Brittonum. This Brutus's brothers were Francus, Alamanus and Romanus, also ancestors of significant European nations.[10]
Now, according to the Romans, Brutus was descended from Japeth.
But in actual fact, this is inaccurate.
Albio, was actually the grandson, of Aeneas.
Historia Britonnum
[1] A more detailed story, set before the foundation of Rome, follows, in which Brutus is the grandson or great grandson of Aeneas
Alba longa:
In reality, Albios bloodline, and name, would be more consistant with the terms Alba, and Aeneas, which would simply have been a Gaelic dialectual deviant of the word Alanus, prior to the Messenian Roman invasion in the 600's BC, when Alba-Longa became Rome, and Albio became Brutus.
Alba longa
Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin) city in Central Italy, 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Rome, in the Alban Hills. Founder and head of the Latin League, it was destroyed by the Roman Kingdom around the middle of the 7th century BC, and its inhabitants were forced to settle in Rome. In legend, Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome, had come from the royal dynasty of Alba Longa, which in Virgil's Aeneid had been the bloodline of Aeneas,
Link for photo
Alba longa
Now, according to legend, "Albio" gave Cambria/Cymru (Wales) to his son Camber.
Camber, also Kamber, was the legendary first king of Cambria, according to the Geoffrey of Monmouth in the first part of his influential 12th-century pseudohistory Historia Regum Britanniae. According to Geoffrey, Cambria, the classical name for Wales, was named for him.
Link for photo.svg)
Now, what evidence do we have for a Gaelic root word for Wales pre-dating any Roman attestations?
Well, we have Cimmerians out fighting a war in the near east around 1000 BC.
And likely led by an Alan.
Coincidentally their red dot distribution leads directly to Alba longa.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were a nomadic Indo-European people, who appeared about 1000 BC[1] and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records. While the Cimmerians were often described by contemporaries as culturally "Scythian", they evidently differed ethnically from the Scythians proper, who also displaced and replaced the Cimmerians.[2]
Link for photo
Cimmerian distribution
Now, the scholarly understanding that the word Cimmerian, is in fact Brythonic, is now quite contemporary.
It is also very likely that this particular Brythonic dialect relates more to the Welsh branch.
The etymology of Cymro "Welshman" (plural: Cymry), connected to the Cimmerians by 17th-century Celticists, is now accepted by Celtic linguists as being derived from a Brythonic word *kom-brogos, meaning "compatriot".[21]
However, again, confusion sets in here, as Brythonic is actually Latinised.
In actual fact, the language was "not" Brythonic, it was "Albannach".
And as we have already established, either on this article, or previous, Alba once pertained to the entire Island of Albion, which we now call Britain, after the Roman invasion and the erection of Hadrians wall, when Alba got pushed North, to be replaced by this "Br".
Albannach, Scottish Gaelic for "Scottish,"
Link for photo#/media/File:Albannach_live.JPG)
And, this brings me to Albanactus.
The supposed youngest son of "Albio".
Albanactus supposedly inherited from Albio, the land North of the Humber, which they named Albany.
In addition to this, you will also find that Humber is the river that flows between the North sea, and Irish sea, and even today, the land North of the Humber, and South of the Humber, is pretty much 100% disconnected by rivers and streams.
To find out what the old border between England and Scotland was, simply click on the link i provide, zoom in, and follow the water.
There are however hundreds of streams.
Do you remember that game "maze" when you get a pencil and try to find your way out? Well, you can do this on google maps, and find the stream that connects the irish sea to the North sea in Yorkshire.
Once you have found it.
Please then go to the Severn river, and find out the old border between Loegria and Camber, by finding the Stream which connects the severn, to the Irish sea.
Albanactus, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the founding king of Albania or Albany. He is in effect Geoffrey's eponym for Scotland.[1] His territory was that north of the River Humber.[2]
Link for google maps
Now, what evidence do we have for ancient Albanians?
Well, we have the Scoloti, who were led by the Alans, and united themselves with the Cimmerians, in Scythia, whilst out in the near east.
.[10][13] Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
In the 7th century BC, the Scythians crossed the Caucasus and frequently raided the Middle East along with the Cimmerians, playing an important role in the political developments of the region.[10][
Link for photo
Alba flag
Now, Locrinus was another son of Albio, and was given the land of Loegria (England).
However, a little lie is told here.
In actual fact, the land he was awarded, was nothing like the equivalent of todays "England".
He was awarded the land south of East riding of Yorkshire, and the Lake district.
Locrinus was a legendary king of the Britons), as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the oldest son of Brutus and a descendant of the Trojans through Aeneas. Following Brutus's death, Britain was divided amongst the three sons, with Locrinus receiving the portion roughly equivalent to England,
Link for photo
English flag
Isle of Cornwall:
Now, if you go google maps, you will find that Cornwall, is actually 100% seperated from British mainland, by rivers and streams, running between River Fowey, flowing out in to the Channel, and the River Gannel, flowing out in to the Irish sea.
Google maps
Queen Gwendolen:
Now this explains why Queen Gwendolen found herself fighting Loegria, from this tiny little Isle she was patronised with.
Queen Gwendolen, also known as Gwendolin, or Gwendolyn (Latin: Guendoloēna) was a legendary ruler of ancient Britain. She is said to have been queen during the 11th century BC.
As told by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical account Historia Regum Britanniae, she was the repudiated queen of King Locrinus until she defeated her husband in battle at the River Stour. This river was the dividing line between Cornwall and Loegria, two key locations in ancient Britain. After defeating the king, she took on the leadership of the Britons, becoming their first queen regnant.
Link for photo
Flag of cornwall
Now, Albio awarded Corineus with the land of Cornwall.
Though, Corineus was not one of his relations.
It would appear Corineus was getting palmed off.
Corineus, in medieval British legend, was a prodigious warrior, a fighter of giants, and the eponymous founder of Cornwall.
Link for photo
So what does it all mean?
Well, it probably means that in actual fact, the Scottish, English, Welsh, divide actually pre-dates Hadrians wall and Offas dyke, and actually has boundaries drawn from nature, and the Island of Albion has always been inhabited by peoples that agree they share the same island, but remain slightly autonomous, due to slight natural differences.
It also means that it is likely that the Roman-Brit, pre-dates the half cast Romano-Brit left by the Romans in the southern lands, and actually the Southern lands from the Humber down, were always quite highly influenced by a Romano-Brit, that was probably more of a Messian-Albino, back then.
At least before an Alan invasion of Aryans from Scandinavian descent in around 1112 BC, when Messian-Albinos likely got pushed to cornwall.
This would be due to the fact that Britain used to be connected with Eurasia, before doggerland sank in 6,500 BC, and therefore, before a "White" invasion, Britain would have probably been a little more Eaurasian.
Doggerland was an area of land, now submerged beneath the southern North Sea, that connected Britain to continental Europe. It was flooded by rising sea levels around 6500–6200 BC.
Link for photo
And, like it or not, the word "Albion", does mean white.
Which would strongly suggest that the Alans were "White".
the Proto-Indo-European root \albho-*, meaning "white" (cf. Ancient Greek ἀλφός, Latin albus ).
Alba Albania:
I will bring this article now, to a close, by reminding everyone about the Alba Albanian flag

Alba Albanian flag
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.09.12 07:04 Cryptolexicon "Empirically, we know that Women and Men are Violent at Roughly Equal Rates."

Minor and Severe DV
This is a study by Murray Straus from 2007 on partner violence between male and female students from 32 nations. It included both the Western democracies (USA, UK, Germany, Canada,...) and the supposedly patriarchal misogynist countries such as Brazil, Iran, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Venezuela, Tanzania ....
In total, there were 10 Asian, 2 African, 4 Latin American, and 12 European countries, plus Canada, USA, Australia and New Zealand.
And, surprisingly enough, results are the same as in previous West-only studies. Most violence is bi-directional, "Patriarchy" is not the cause of violence, and female violence is slightly more common than male.
"Over 200 studies, mostly in Euro-American nations, found about the same percent of women as men physically assault marital and dating partners. Tabulation of 24 published studies in male-dominant (MD) nations and the results for university students in 32 nations found that, regardless of the level of MD, about the same percent of women as men assaulted a partner. Moreover, the more MD the nation, higher rate of assaulting a partner by women (r=.41). " (Murray Strauss, Assaults By Women On Male Partners In Male Dominant Nations: Preliminary Tests Of An Explanatory Theory)
"Feminists had, for the most part, been reluctant to discuss violent women, for the very real fear it would undermine the hard-won battles secured by the campaigning and activism resulting from women’s victimisation." (Emma Milne, Jackie Turton).
**"In many ways, we turned a blind eye to many women’s use of violence, their drug use and alcoholism, and their often harsh and violent treatment of their own children." (Ellen Pence, Duluth Model Creator)*\*
submitted by Cryptolexicon to ReportMaleHateSubs [link] [comments]

2020.09.07 09:00 Shigalyov Chapter 3 (The Strangest Story in the World) - The Everlasting Man Part 1

This chapter continues Christ's journey. Chesterton highlights the distinct nature of Jesus: his divinity. He then focuses on Christ's main mission - to die. Both of these aspects set him apart from all the other philosophies and religions.

Christ's divinity
For this is the very last character that commonly goes with mere megalomania; especially such steep and staggering megalomania as might be involved in that claim.
In essence, consider what we've seen so far in the last two chapters. About Christ's behaviour. Is that the behaviour of a megalomaniac or a lunatic?
"There is a sort of notion in the air everywhere that all the religions are equal because all the religious founders were rivals, that they are all fighting for the same starry crown. It is quite false. The claim to that crown, or anything like that crown, is really so rare as to be unique. Mahomet did not make it any more than Micah or Malachi. Confucius did not make it any more that Plato or Marcus Aurelius. Buddha never said he was Brahma. Zoroaster no more claimed to be Ormuz than to be Ahriman"
This is important and goes to the heart of any comparison between Christianity and others. All of the other philosophers or prophets were just that: philosophers or prophets. The philosophers would sometimes talk about God's nature. The prophets in turn would speak on behalf of God. This applies to every single one we've covered: Judaism, Islam, Buddha, Plato, Aristotle, etc. Not a single one of these prophets or philosophers claimed to be God. Right there you have a massive difference in kind between Christianity and the rest. As Chesterton notes, even if the Church is wrong in interpreting Christ's words this way, it is nonetheless a unique blunder which no other philosophy has ever made.
To be fair, I think the very closest one could get to this are the Hindu "avatars" of the gods Vishnu, Krishna and others. In fact if I recall correctly Hindus think Jesus himself was such an avatar. But I do not know enough about these to comment more on this.
Normally speaking, the greater a man is, the less likely he is to make the very greatest claim. Outside the unique case we are considering, the only kind of man who ever does make that kind of claim is a very small man; a secretive or self-centered monomaniac. Nobody can imagine Aristotle claiming to be the father of gods and men, come down from the sky; though we might imagine some insane Roman Emperor like Caligula claiming it for him, or more probably for himself. Nobody can imagine Shakespeare talking as if he were literally divine; though we might imagine some crazy American crank finding it as a cryptogram in Shakespeare's works, or preferably in his own works.
Here Chesterton starts to give be explicit about an argument which C. S. Lewis developed further. It is quite obvious to us that people who do in fact claim to be God are either lunatics or absolute megalomaniacs. Importantly:
this is exactly where the argument becomes intensely interesting; because the argument proves too much. For nobody supposes that Jesus of Nazareth was that sort of person. No modern critic in his five wits thinks that the preacher of the Sermon on the Mount was a horrible half-witted imbecile that might be scrawling stars on the walls of a cell. No atheist or blasphemer believes that the author of the Parable of the Prodigal Son was a monster with one mad idea like a cyclops with one eye. Upon any possible historical criticism, he must be put higher in the scale of human beings than that. Yet by all analogy we have really to put him there or else in the highest place of all."
C. S. Lewis put it even better:
I am trying here to prevent anyone saying the really foolish thing that people often say about Him: "I'm ready to accept Jesus as a great moral teacher, but I don't accept His claim to be God." That is the one thing we must not say. A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. He would either be a lunatic — on a level with the man who says he is a poached egg — or else he would be the Devil of Hell. You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is, the Son of God: or else a madman or something worse. You can shut Him up for a fool, you can spit at Him and kill Him as a demon; or you can fall at His feet and call Him Lord and God. But let us not come with any patronising nonsense about His being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to.

Christ's mission
The second aspect that Chesterton focuses on is Christ's goal. What his ultimate intentions were.
"But there is another quality running through all his teachings which seems to me neglected in most modern talk about them as teachings; and that is the persistent suggestion that he has not really come to teach.
At least it certainly meant a general plan or purpose in the mind, with which certain things did or did not fit in. And if we leave out that solitary strategic plan, we not only leave out the point of the story, but the story."
He had an aim. He did not just walk around teaching people. He did do that, but it was not his main focus. In the Gospels time and again you read about how his "face was set for Jerusalem". He prophecies his death and seems to have it in mind as his main goal.

"It is assuredly well to remember that he would quite certainly have been moved on by the police and almost certainly arrested by the police for having no visible means of subsistence."
Somewhat off topic. This reminds me of a song by Kris Kristofferson. It is worth a listen.

Comparison with Apollonius of Tyana and others
"Apollonius of Tyana, who figured in some fashionable cults as a sort of ideal philosopher, is represented as rambling as far as the Ganges and Ethiopia, more or less talking all the time."
According to Wikipedia Apollonius lived around 15 to 100 AD and came from Anatolia (modern day Turkey). He was a contemporary of Jesus.
"Philostratus describes Apollonius as a wandering teacher of philosophy and miracle-worker who was mainly active in Greece and Asia Minor but also traveled to Italy, Spain, and North Africa, and even to Mesopotamia, India, and Ethiopia. In particular, he tells lengthy stories of Apollonius entering the city of Rome in disregard of emperor Nero’s ban on philosophers, and later on being summoned, as a defendant, to the court of Domitian, where he defied the emperor in blunt terms. He had allegedly been accused of conspiring against the emperor, performing human sacrifice, and predicting a plague by means of magic. Philostratus implies that upon his death, Apollonius of Tyana underwent heavenly assumption."
It seems he is often compared to Jesus by both modern sceptics (Bart Ehrman, Robert Price) and historical ones (Voltaire). The Wikipedia article interestingly counters this with reference to this very chapter by Chesterton.
"His death is wrapped in mystery, although he is said to have lived to be nearly one hundred years of age. His disciples were quick to say that he had not died at all, but had been caught up to heaven. When he had vanished from the Earth, the inhabitants of his native Tyana built a temple in his honor, and statues were raised to him in various other temples"
Back to Chesterton:
"Socrates did indeed find the conversation interrupted by the incident of his execution. But it is the whole point and the whole particular merit, of the position of Socrates that death was only an interruption and an incident. We miss the real moral importance of the great philosopher if we miss that point; that he stares at the executioner with an innocent surprise, and almost an innocent annoyance, at finding anyone so unreasonable as to cut short a little conversation for the elucidation of truth. He is looking for truth and not looking for death. Death is but a stone in the road which can trip him up."
As mentioned in a previous chapter, Socrates was condemned to death by the Athenians. He was not even very bothered by it. But it interrupted a fruitful life of conversation with his friends and pupils.
"Buddha, on the other hand, did arrest attention by one gesture; it was the gesture of renunciation, and therefore in a sense of denial. But by one dramatic negation he passed into a world of negation that was not dramatic; which he would have been the first to insist was not dramatic. Here again we miss the particular moral importance of the great mystic if we do not see the distinction; that it was his whole point that he had done with drama, which consists of desire and struggle and generally of defeat and disappointment. He passes into peace and lives to instruct others how to pass into it."
Whereas Socrates was interrupted by death, Buddha's main thesis is a lack of climax. His aim was ultimately non-existence. If he had a climax it was at enlightenment, not death. He went on to teach others after obtaining his goal.
"He may be met as if straying in strange places, or stopped on the way for discussion or dispute; but his face is set towards the mountain city."
In contrast, Jesus' main aim was not teachings or miracles. It was the cross.
"I have compared the quest to the journey of Jason, but we must never forget that in a deeper sense it is rather to be compared to the journey of Ulysses. It was not only a romance of travel but a romance of return; and of the end of a usurpation. No healthy boy reading the story regards the rout of the Ithacan suitors as anything but a happy ending. "
In the Odyssey, Odysseus (or the latinized name Ulysseus) spent years trying to return from the Trojan Wars to his own kingdom of Ithaca. He had numerous obstacles alone the way. When he came home he found his house in disorder as tens of men basically had taken over the palace. There they kept trying to pressure Odysseus's wife into marrying one of them. Odysseus and his son slew them all.
"It is characteristic of the contrast perhaps that Apollonius was supposed to have lived to an almost miraculous old age. Jesus of Nazareth was less prudent in his miracles. When Jesus was brought before the judgement-seat of Pontius Pilate, he did not vanish. It was the crisis and the goal; it was the hour and the power of darkness. It was the supremely supernatural act, of all his miraculous life, that he did not vanish."
What more can be said? For Socrates death was an interruption. For Buddha it was not the main goal. Apollonius, when faced with possible death, vanished. Jesus in contrast, despite his similarities to them, did not vanish or simply acquiesce to it or ignore it. Death was the goal. If we affirm that he could do miracles, then that would have been the best time to perform one. But the real miracle is that he did not.

The death of myth and philosophy and the end of the world
The entire world in all its main aspects condemned him to death. The same forces that were present at his birth, were present at his execution.
"It is more within my powers, and here more immediately to my purpose, to point out that in that scene were symbolically gathered all the human forces that have been vaguely sketched in this story. As kings and philosophers and the popular element had been symbolically present at his birth, so they were more practically concerned in his death; and with that we come face to face with the essential fact to be realised."
Judgment of myth
"Standing between the pillars of his own judgement-seat, a Roman had washed his hands of the world."
Rome was that embodiment of civilization and myth. It triumphed over the demons of Carthage. But at this point, as mentioned at the end of Part 1, scepticism almost ruined it. Myth itself was not enough. It could not sustain itself.
Judgment of religion
"There too were the priests of that pure and original truth that was behind all the mythologies like the sky behind the clouds. It was the most important truth in the world; and even that could not save the world."
The Jews in turn had the true religion. The true monotheism. But they also rejected him.
Judgment of the people
"so it was with the element which was perhaps the best, or which Christ himself seems certainly to have felt as the best. The poor to whom he preached the good news, the common people who heard him gladly, the populace that had made so many popular heroes and demigods in the old pagan world, showed also the weaknesses that were dissolving the world."
Even the poor, that group excluded by most philosophies and religions, even they rejected him.
All together
"The mob went along with the Sadducees and the Pharisees, the philosophers and the moralists. It went along with the imperial magistrates and the sacred priests, the scribes and the soldiers, that the one universal human spirit might suffer a universal condemnation; that there might be one deep, unanimous chorus of approval and harmony when Man was rejected of men."
And with that all of it came together. The philosophers, mythologists, priests, rulers, the poor, the rich, the powerful - all united in rejecting God.
But by doing so they died with him:
"The mythologies and the philosophies were buried there, the gods and the heroes and the sages. In the great Roman phrase, they had lived. But as they could only live, so they could only die; and they were dead."

"On the third day the friends of Christ coming at daybreak to the place found the grave empty and the stone rolled away. In varying ways they realised the new wonder; but even they hardly realised that the world had died in the night. What they were looking at was the first day of a new creation, with a new heaven and a new earth; and in a semblance of the gardener God walked again in the garden, in the cool not of the evening but the dawn"
With Christ's death all of the previous corruptions died. All the myths, philosophies, and demons. It reminds me of baptism. How at the moment of redemption you die with Christ, putting off the old and embracing the new.
I do not know if this is theologically sound, but the comparison between the two gardens and a "new creation" is very applicable. Christ rose on the Sunday. The first day of the week. Indeed in Spanish, Russian and other languages the word for Sunday is "Resurrection" or has some link with Christ (Domingo, Voskresenye). This is interesting for me because in a way Christ's resurrection is a new creation week. A new Day 1. The old things indeed have passed away. A new age has begun.

This is not part of the chapter but I figured it would be worth including.
Whether Jesus actually made the claim to be God is something interesting worth a few paragraphs. I can go so much more in depth on this, but these are a few themes or verses that come to mind at the moment.
The Gospel of John said that Jesus is the Word and that the Word is God. The same Gospel makes the "Before Abraham was, I am" statement of the previous chapter. It also includes Thomas saying "My Lord and My God". In the Synoptics you have Jesus being questioned before Caiaphas. When asked whether he is the Messiah, Jesus said "I am" and "you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven." This is a reference to the Son of Man in Daniel 7 who came with the clouds of heaven and who was given all authority, glory and sovereign power and worshipped by all nations. Even more the theme of the "cloud rider" was taken from pagans by Jews and applied to Yahweh (in Isaiah I believe), which makes Jesus riding the clouds an additional blatant affirmation of his deity.
Furthermore, only God can forgive sins, yet Jesus forgave sins (again, in his own name and not speaking on God's behalf). The Jews even wanted to stone him for this. He claimed to be Lord of the Sabbath. Who but God can amend covenant obligations? He commanded the waters multiple times, an act understood by the ancients to be divine in nature and which has callbacks to the Exodus (many ancient myths have the gods warring over chaotic waters in their establishment of order). He also compared himself to a son of an a field owner in a parable of his, implying his unique relationship to the Father. He is called the First and the Last, a title only given to God. I can go on and on by speaking about Old Testament prophecies, Pauline stories and others. For now this might just help.
One more thing. He was worshipped from the very beginning. This disproves any possible change in Christian doctrine. Not only can the Gospels and epistles be dated to between 5 years and a few decades (40 years?) after the resurrection, but extra-biblical sources affirm this too.
Tacitus, when writing on Jesus, mentions a "most mischievous superstition". Pliny the Younger in around 112 says that when Christians gathered they "sang an anthem to Christ as God". Lucian of Samosata, a second-century Greek satirist, further says that Christians "worship the crucified sage".
On the historicity off the crucifixion itself I want to say one more thing. I plan to still do a short overview of the evidence for the Resurrection where I will include debates around Christ's historicity and death as well. I hope I get to that at some point. But for now just know that even the most radical sceptical scholars admit at least one point: Christ's death by crucifixion under Pilate as a fact of history. Whatever your views on his resurrection and Christ's ideology, his death (and existence) are historical. Just keep it in mind.
For a few sources on Christ's divinity, look at these. They are all coincidentally made in response to Muslims. Muslims believe Jesus was merely a prophet, so Christ's divinity often come up in discussions. There are other sources as well but these three came to mind.
William Lane Craig on the tenant parable
IslamCritiqued on Shabir Ally's "Markian theory"
David Wood on "Where does Jesus say 'I am God, worship me'".

Read it here
Chapter list
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2020.09.04 00:01 LuminumYT I have no friends

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The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible fruit and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.[4] The pineapple is indigenous to South America, where it has been cultivated for many centuries. The introduction of the pineapple to Europe in the 17th century made it a significant cultural icon of luxury. Since the 1820s, pineapple has been commercially grown in greenhouses and many tropical plantations. Further, it is the third most important tropical fruit in world production. In the 20th century, Hawaii was a dominant producer of pineapples, especially for the US; however, by 2016, Costa Rica, Brazil, and the Philippines accounted for nearly one-third of the world's production of pineapples.[5]
Pineapples grow as a small shrub; the individual flowers of the unpollinated plant fuse to form a multiple fruit. The plant is normally propagated from the offset produced at the top of the fruit,[2][6] or from a side shoot.
The wild plant originates from the Paraná–Paraguay River drainages between southern Brazil and Paraguay.[2][18][19] Little is known about domestication but it spread as a crop throughout South America, and it eventually reached the Caribbean, Central America, and Mexico, where it was cultivated by the Mayas and the Aztecs.[20] The first European to encounter the pineapple was Columbus, in Guadeloupe on 4 November 1493, by which time cropped pineapple was widely distributed and a stable component of the diet of native Americans.[21][22] The Portuguese took the fruit from Brazil and introduced it into India by 1550.[23] The 'Red Spanish' cultivar was also introduced by the Spanish from Latin America to the Philippines, and it was grown for textile use from at least the 17th century.[24][25]
Charles II is presented with the first pineapple grown in England (1675 painting by Hendrik Danckerts).
Columbus brought the plant back to Spain and called it piña de Indes, meaning "pine of the Indians". The pineapple was documented in Peter Martyr's Decades of the New World in 1516 and Antonio Pigafetta's Le Voyage et Navigacion.. of 1526, and the first known illustration was in Oviedo's Historia General de Las Indias in 1535.[26]
The pineapple fascinated Europeans as a fruit of colonialism[27] but it could not be successfully cultivated in Europe for several centuries until Pieter de la Court developed a greenhouse horticulture near Leyden from about 1658.[28][22] Pineapple plants were distributed from the Netherlands to English gardeners in 1719 and French ones in 1730.[22] In England, the first pineapple was grown at Dorney Court, Dorney in Buckinghamshire, and a huge "pineapple stove" to heat the plants was built at the Chelsea Physic Garden in 1723.[29][30] In France, King Louis XV was presented with a pineapple that had been grown at Versailles in 1733. In Russia, Catherine the Great ate pineapples grown on her own estates before 1796.[31] Because of the expense of direct import and the enormous cost in equipment and labour required to grow them in a temperate climate, using hothouses called "pineries", pineapples soon became a symbol of wealth. They were initially used mainly for display at dinner parties, rather than being eaten, and were used again and again until they began to rot.[32] By the second half of the 18th century, the production of the fruit on British estates had become the subject of great rivalry between wealthy aristocrats.[32] John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore built a hothouse on his estate surmounted by a huge stone cupola 14 metres tall in the shape of the fruit; it is known as the Dunmore Pineapple.[33] In architecture, pineapple figures became decorative elements symbolizing hospitality.[34][35][36]
Many different varieties were tried, mostly from the Antilles, for European glasshouse cultivation.The most significant was 'Smooth Cayenne', imported to France in 1820, and subsequently re-exported to the UK in 1835 and then from the UK via Hawaii to Australia and Africa. `Smooth Cayenne'' is now the dominant cultivar in world production.[22] Jams and sweets based on pineapple were being imported to Europe from the West Indies, Brazil and Mexico from an early date, and by the early 19C, fresh pineapples were transported direct from the West Indies in large enough quantities to reduce European prices.[22] Later pineapple production was dominated by the Azores for Europe and Florida and the Caribbean for North America because of the short trade routes.
The Spanish had introduced the pineapple into Hawaii in the 18th century,[37] but the first commercial plantation was not until 1886. The most famous investor was James Dole, who moved to Hawaii in 1899[38] and started a 60 acres (24 ha) pineapple plantation in 1900 which would grow into the Dole Food Company.[39] Dole and Del Monte began growing pineapples on the island of Oahu in 1901 and 1917, respectively, and the Maui Pineapple Company began cultivation on Maui in 1909.[40] James Dole began the commercial processing of pineapple and an automatic peeling and coring machine was developed by Henry Ginaca, a Dole employee, in 1911.[22]
Hawaiian production started to decline from the 1970s because of competition and the shift to refrigerated sea transport. Dole ceased its cannery operations in Honolulu in 1991, and in 2008, Del Monte terminated its pineapple-growing operations in Hawaii.[41] In 2009, the Maui Pineapple Company reduced its operations to supply pineapples only locally on Maui,[42] and by 2013, only the Dole Plantation on Oahu grew pineapples in a volume of about 0.1 percent of the world's production.[41] Despite this decline, the pineapple is sometimes used as a symbol of Hawaii.[43][44] Further, foods with pineapple in them are sometimes known as "Hawaiian" for this reason alone.[45]
In the Philippines, 'Smooth Cayenne' was introduced in the early 1900s by the US Bureau of Agriculture during the American colonial period, and Dole and Del Monte also established plantations in the island of Mindanao in the 1920s; in the provinces of Cotabato and Bukidnon, respectively.[24][46][25] Large scale canning had started in Southeast Asia, including in the Philippines, from 1920 although this trade was severely damaged by the Second World War, and Hawaii dominated the international trade until the 1960s.
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2020.09.02 15:39 Robert_de_Saint_Loup Why has our generation embraced online dating?

I was born in 1995 and back in the day there was this thing called the “personals” section of the newspaper. It was made for people who wanted to connect with a potential partner. A person would look at the personals and if they saw the information and picture of someone they liked, they would contact them. My aunt implored with tears her coworker at the time not to date a man in the personals section. It was considered shameful to do such things and the proper way was considered either an introduction to a mutual friend or go to particular spots such as the beach, gym, bar, etc... such was dating back in those days.
Online dating started becoming more popular when eHarmony and Match came out. But this was more for middle aged people and it was also a paid service. But a 22 year old in 2006 for example, wouldn’t go on Match or Eharmony.
Online dating for young adults didn’t really kick until after 2009 or so. And when OkCupid and Tinder got started, it gained a mass following of young adults and college students. Such was the attraction of Tinder at that time.
Today, due to society’s conditions, there is Hinge, Coffeemeetsbagle, Bumble, Happn, Tinder, OkCupid and a ton of other ones. But how did this happen?
Granted it’s predominantly common in large and medium cities. The people of the country, following the traditions of our ancestors, aren’t so quick to throw themselves into online dating and resort to more conventional forms of dating.
And our fellow millennial peers in the East are much more attuned with the conventional forms of dating. Same thing with the mediterranean nations and Latin America. I’m not saying it doesn’t exist over there, it’s just not as common with our peers as it is over here in the Western English nations, USA, Canada, UK.
In Latvia, our fellow millennials rejoice during the Jāņi and sing songs of summer and joy. They start a fire and all the civil servants of the city flock to the scene of merriment to join their community. So great is the attachment to the ancestors and the community.
Here, everybody is on dating apps sharing spongebob memes and talking about identity politics.
In Puerto Rico, the islanders aren’t as keen on online dating. Same thing with many of the people in other areas.
Why do we assume we are superior? We tech-obsessed young people. Why do we embrace online dating and suggest it for our friends when many of our peers don’t do this.
How did this happen?
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2020.09.02 00:37 Usernamenotta Non-American here: How to justify international level theft and use artificial starvation to further your own gains: The gold of Venezuela.

This is part conspiracy, part fact statement. I know this sub is highly popular by Americans, so the main view of the world is extremly pro-American. Either if they bomb a country for oil or to fight terrorists, or even bomb the wrong country, the West and essentially US are still a beacon of civlisation and whatever they do is only for the greater, selfless good. However, from the outside things look a bit different. This particular post is the result of me tracking the MSM narrative for a little over a year now and how shocked I am to see how much logic and facts can be twisted to justify what is essentially international grade theft and planned starvation of a nation.
Soo, what is the MSM narrative on Venezuela? It's nation ruled by a dictator and because he's a socialist anti-US dictator (not the pro-US genocidal dictator like Cold War SK or South Vietnam or Indonesia which US loved) his nation is going to shambles due to him being an anti-US dictator and his failed economic policies. The West and US especially, have nothing to do with the crisis and they stand with the rightful ruler of Venezuela, Guaido (who's also kinda self declared and the only semi-legitimate backing force he had, the self-exiled national assembly, retreated its support for him)
But what is actually going on, what is the actual timeline of events and why should we, non-americans care?
Well, the economic measures which the US blames for the fall of Venezuela have started years ago, after the ultra-capitalist orientation of the nation boosted the economy in statistics, but also created great economic divide between the classes. The socialist measures were introduced in an attempt to solve this by Maduros predecessor, Chavez. After his death, Maduro took over. However, problems were already on the horizon. Since the times of Obama, US imposed sanctions on Venezuela. However, things escalated recently after an election won by Maduro. This was sensed as an opportunity by the US to hit as many birds with one stone as possible. They created further division in the nation and outside it by backing Guaido. They refused any form of negociations and encouraged the world to do the same, blocking Venezuela from international trade. Not only that, but they created an anti-Venezuela front in Latin America. The only nations which seek a peaceful solution were Russia, Mexico, China and Bolivia, encouraging dialogue between the two parties, while the US puppeteered Lima format vehemently denies any peaceful conciliation. Outside South America, where only Bolivia and Mexico were supporters, the only nations siding with Venezuela were Russia, China and Iran.
The political perspective: As mentioned, the Russian backed format declares itself for further conciliation of the parties. Meanwhile, from the start, the Western led group did not even want to hear about any solution not on their terms: Days before the planned election date, the Lima Group – alongside the United States and the European Union – called for the cancellation of the election and prepared for responses should the election be held.[32] Following the election which strengthened President Maduro's position, the fourteen member nations of the Lima Group recalled their ambassadors from Venezuela (from Wikipedia). Yes, the great beacons of democracy deny elections. No matter what you believe about the context, elections are a core principle of democracy. You cannot deny them and then call yourself pro democracy. In the meantime, the situation degenerated. More sanctions came to be and Bolivia, the only Venezuelan ally in South America suddenly had a change of hart, overthrowing the gouvernment and surprise, surprise, a new pro-US anti Venezuela one came to power. And despite promising new elections, those were delayed 3 times already. Meanwhile, US seems to think it's their divine duty to block Iran trading with Venezuela, because a nation surely has the right to disrupt trade with two others. Not only that, but we've seen disinfo campaigns by Western media trying to gather support for the opposition (Famou stories include 'humanitarian convoy's not sanctioned by the UN, filled with equipment meant to build barricades or the NYT story on how Maduros border guards allegedly torched a humanitarian truck which was actually set ablaze by the oposition throwing molotovs.) Well, overthrowing gouvernments just to overthrow others or destryoing the credibility of humanitarian missions for the same goal seems dark enough, right? Well, that's nothing compared to a more sinister fact:
Planned starvation of Venezuela and theft of their assets. I've already made it clear that US and the West imposed multiple sanctions on Venezuela. Had it been only one nation, it would be fine, however most of the world cut refuses to deal with the current gouvernment. This means that the nation cannot sign deals to trade and get the goods they desperately need, they cannot take loans or get access to specialists to maintain their infrastructure and, worst of all they lost control over their foreign assets. Let's do a logic check. If a country is banned from world trade, how can it get the goods it lacks? No matter what economic measures one could take, it is impossible to improve or even maintain yourself as a nation if you cannot trade. And who has to suffer more? The population of course. The elites of a nation already have a material base they can use to survive even if they cede everything of the few resources that come in, but the general population cannot survive with international trade. The US and EU are fully aware of this, but instead of finding a way to allow Venezuela to trade again, they keep pushing the anti-Maduro initiative. The exiled gouvernment itself is busy more with overthrowing Maduro instead of finding solutions and restoring trade. And this is not the only problem. Venezuelas infrastructure needs maintainance and they need international specialists for this. But they cannot get them. And last, but not least, the theft of Venezuelas assets. There are many examples, Here is an article about how US wants to 'pay' for oil, without sending in the money, or here about how US is trying to crush Venezuelas economic arm (I'll return to it later). However, another mind bogling example occured not in the US, but Europe. Two of them actually, with Deutsche Bank and the Bank of England involved. . The one I am going to focus is the Bank of England. Basically, court ruled that Venezuela cannot access its own gold reserves to pay for the debts it has . Why? Because the UK recognised another ruler for that nation. Just enjoy the mental gymnastics we are forced to accept: Venezuela is strugling to pay for its debts to the West because the West cut of its source of money. They also cannot access their emergency reserves in a time of emergency because the leaders of a foreign nation do not recongise the leader which de facto controls the nation. As a result, the gold they had deposited to other nations as an insurance was taken away from them and is free to be sold. This is simply plain theft. And the mental gymnastics don't stop there. The main nations that trade with Venezuela are Iran, Russia and China. Of course, those are oil-rich nations or have ample supplies of oil, so the main export product of Venezuela, even in the best of intentions, won't be worth much to them. They try to provide medicine and other services in exchange for access to other natural resources, like gold. And what is the US propaganda saying? That's it's actually Russia and China, legally trading and supporting Venezuala to keep it afloat, that are stealing from the people. And the main victims are the people of Venezuela who, in any ending of this situation, are going to find themselves in a nation empoverished by debt and with their hard earned gold reserves stolen.
So, what's next? Well, new elections were supposed to be held this year, but the 'opposition' already said they won't take part. Oldest tactic ever, you cannot say you were defeated in a fair battle if you did not take part in the battle. After the elections, I predict the US will propagate lies like 'the dictator supressed free vote and denied the opposition a chance' and use those lies to justiffy even more strangulation of their economy. And further down the road? I predict 2 possible outcomes. 1. Maduro or a non-US alligned faction stays in power and the suffering of the people will continue 2. Maduro leaves and I suspect the events are going to unfold like what happened in my nation and the rest of the post-communist block once the Iron Courtain fell: forced capitalisation to enslave the economy, I've already provided an example of US stripping a Venezuelan company of its source of income (and other physical assets). What happened to us and what is going to happen next is simple: due to the inflation and destruction of foreign assets, the forced capitalisation of Venezuela would make the big companies look inefficient on the economic market, significantly dropping their value. Add a few pro-US shaddy officials in Venezuela and the state companies critical to the national economy and infrastructure are going to be taken over by US or European ones, perhaps even being dismantled. Who knows, Bidens son might even get a new present like he got from Ukraine after Maidan.
Soo, why should we care? Well, for the US youth, take note and don't be brainwashed by ultra capitalist diehards and fake socialists. Venezuela failed because of outside interference, not because it cared for its people through socialism. Don't let others deny your rights to healthcare and education, but don't let a gouvernment abuse you for them.
Those outside US and outside Western nations in general? We should all trade, we should all communicate, but DO NOT TRUST THE WEST. They will force you to starve and then blame you for not pulling yourself out of starvation
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2020.08.28 18:11 HaulA28Augl Bum-ble G-ay International Da-ting Too

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2020.08.17 22:45 AmericanNewt8 What you [might] need to know about South Korea's ludicrous arms buildup

This is my first shot at an effortpost; the prologue is probably too long, but whatever. It did take a lot of effort, at least, and it is a post--ergo, effortpost. Also it's a break from nonstop Biden coverage so that should at least count for something.


A long time ago in a peninsula far far away [from the US, anyway] there was a bit of a scuffle called the Korean War. It's not like, a huge event, but you've probably heard of it. Anyways, since the war "ended", South Korea has been frozen in a conflict with its northern neighbor, generally called "North Korea". Frozen is, of course, a relative term. Cross-border clashes and raids have been frequent occurences throughout the seventy or so years since the war ended. Of particular note are the Blue House Raid and the resulting abortive South Korean response in Unit 684 [mostly remembered for spawning an excellent--or at least highly profitable--action film,since the original idea sounded like a film pitch anyway], the Korean Axe Murder Incident/Operation Paul Bunyan, the ROKS Cheonan sinking and the Bombardment of Yeonpyeong. So, basically, South Korea is kept on a perpetual war footing, and has always devoted a significant portion of its resources to defense--a share which, until relatively recently, was actually shrinking due to the massive growth of the South Korean economy, which has gone from being pretty much the poorest country in the world immediately after the Korean War to one of its richest. I'm also going to give a rundown on some other things regarding South Korea specifically from an IGeopolitical/Military standpoint.

Foreign Relations
By far South Korea's most significant foreign relationship is with the United States, and it dominates every other relationship it has. For decades South Korea relied on the United States for defense, and it still does, to an extent--though US Forces Korea is now greatly diminished from its height, down to around 25,000 troops, they play a vital role in Korean defense. In particular, they run/ran most of South Korea's command-and-control and signals infrastructure, and the US maintains operational control in war, though what exactly this means these days is unclear [and it almost certainly involves heavy collaboration with the South Korean government, with a South Korean general being the second-in-command of Combined Forces Korea]. Korea's relationship with the US is thus dominated by security issues, though economic issues have some modest importance.

South Korea's relationships with its more immediate neighbors are generally speaking more complex. South Korea maintains excellent terms with China, its key economic partner, but is more than a little nervous of China's power. This has been greatly aided by the growth of South Korean cultural influence in China and a shift in attitudes in China towards neutrality, if not an outright pro-South position regarding inter-peninsular disputes, among the leadership--which views North Korea as more an irritant than anything else. China's military [particularly naval] buildup, however, is one key factor behind South Korea's rapid development of its naval capabilities in particular.

Japan, on the other hand, looks like a natural ally for South Korea on paper. It's economically powerful, enough to offset China, is nervous about North Korea, and is even more deeply tied into the US alliance system than South Korea is. They're even both maritime powers. However, in a sad moment for those following the realist school of thought, this is simply not the case. In particular, two issues constantly cause problems in the Japanese-South Korean relationship. First is the outstanding territorial dispute over the Dokdos/Liancourt Rocks. While these rocks are, well, rocks, Japan has a tendency to get very aggressive over uninhabited islands. They are, for the record, sort of inhabited--there's a South Korean coast guard post on the islands, so they are occupied. Second are lingering sores from the Japanese colonization of Korea--in particular those atrocities committed during the Second World War, such as the Japanese use of forced prostitution of Koreans and forced labor for Japanese corporations. As a general rule of thumb, the relationship with Japan is probably the most political of any of South Korea's international relationships, with South Korean conservatives working to paper over any problems with Japan while South Korean liberals take a nationalistic stance on the issue, as can be seen by the recent souring of relations between the two nations. In addition, the United States has generally played a key role keeping South Korea-Japan disputes under wraps and quiet, but recently, with the Foreign Service gutted, has been largely unable or unwilling to do so.

South Korea's relationship with Russia is also interesting and worthy of some note here, and largely dates back to the 1980s and 1990s, when South Korea was a major trade partner for Russia and accepted military equipment in exchange for debt forgiveness in a classic post-Soviet move. Since then, Russia and South Korea have done a decent amount of business, but the two nations have also collaborated extensively on defense. In particular, South Korea's short-range ballistic missiles use Russian technology from the Iskander, and South Korea is building/developing surface-to-air missiles based off of Russian S-300/400 technology. South Korea is also working to build submarine-launched ballistic missiles based off of this same Russian missile technology. In return, Russia has generally avoided new sales of arms or increases in trade relations with North Korea--not that the North has any money with which to do either of those things with anyhow.

South Korea's relationship with North Korea is... problematic, and some might say nonexistent. While North Korea and South Korea have repeatedly reconciled, doing so has seldom generated practical results, as can be clearly seen by North Korea's acquisition of nuclear weapons despite decades of diplomatic efforts and North Korea's continued aggression towards the South, most recently blowing up a liason office with the North. In sum, I wouldn't expect the long-held pattern of reconciliation and breakup to halt anytime soon.

The South Korean Armed Forces are largely staffed by conscripts, numbering about 600,000, and consist of several branches, basically organized in the exact same style as the United States. There is the ROKA [Republic of Korea Army], ROKN [Republic of Korea Navy], ROKAF [Republic of Korea Air Force] and ROKMC [Republic of Korea Marine Corps]. ROKA is by far the largest service branch, with over 450,000 members, and is usually the destination of conscripts--however, the ROKN and ROKAF are where a lot of new investment is going, and the ROKMC may play a vital role in any war as well. In essence, the South Korean Armed Forces aim to stop any North Korean attack and then, with US assistance, launch a counteroffensive into North Korea. This, however, ends up being much more aggressive than it sounds.

South Korea has invested into thousands of ballistic and cruise missile systems, more than North Korea possesses, with the aim of being able to disable North Korean artillery and ballistic missile systems in the opening moves of any conflict. This is especially important because North Korea possesses thousands of artillery pieces in range of northern Seoul suburbs. Though casualty estimates are generally exaggerated [it takes a lot more than what North Korea has to turn Seoul into a "sea of fire"] RAND has estimated that such a strike could potentially cause tens of thousands of deaths and hundreds of thousands of casualties. Note that while RAND estimates with high-explosive, North Korea possesses a substantial chemical weapons arsenal--but it's likely to actually be less effective than high-explosive except as a terror weapon. Chemical weapons come with serious problems--mustard agents have fatality rates so low, even when used in WWI, that some questioned whether they should be viewed as lethal weapons at all, and nerve gas has... mixed results, as Aum Shrinkyo would tell you.

South Korea has also invested billions of dollars into developing advanced ground capabilities, developing some of the world's best ground military equipment, which are now beginning to see some success. It has also been investing a large quantity of money into a massive naval buildup, an indigenous stealthy jet fighter, and other technologies.

Other things that should be noted are numerous, but some of the most important are:
In sum, the armed forces of South Korea are some of the world's most powerful, and they're only strengthening. By the end of the decade, my suspicion is that [barring a sudden increase in effectiveness by India, or Japan abandoning its 1% hold] South Korea will be the worlds third or fourth most powerful military. Not the UK, not France, perhaps not even Russia--no, South Korea.

Weapons of Mass Destruction
In the early 1970s, South Korea first ventured into the area of WMDs. When the US, under Jimmy Carter, announced its intention to withdraw from South Korea, the South's security situation looked grim--and, as a result, like any sensible dictator would do, Park Chung-he decided to start researching nuclear weapons. This did end up accomplishing its goal, after a fashion. Though South Korea never got the nuclear reprocessing facility it wanted, it did, in exchange for ending its nuclear program and signing the Non-Proliferation Treaty, both ensure that American troops remained in South Korea and that the United States would offer South Korea commercial nuclear technology, an area in which it had great success. However, South Korea also devoted a substantial amount of effort to evading IAEA safeguards and bans in its Section 123 [nuclear cooperation with the US] agreement. In particular, in the early 1980s South Korean scientists worked to extract plutonium in what basically amounted to laboratory-scale reprocessing, and in 2000 South Korean scientists enriched a small amount of uranium to near-weapons-grade with lasers.

In addition to this foray into nuclear research, South Korea is believed [to the point it's considered an open secret] to have possessed a substantial arsenal of chemical weapons, mostly nerve gas. However, it has ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention and no longer possesses any stockpiles, those stockpiles having been destroyed some time ago. In fact, South Korea officially never had chemical weapons and was only referred to as an "unspecified state party" in official records by the OPCW.

The Buildup:

Things really started picking up around ten years ago, after the ROKS Cheonan sinking and the Bombardment of Yeonpyeong. Defense spending has grown at more than 7% some years. However, the next decade looks to be taking things to a whole new level. The next few years see spending rising by nearly double-digit percentage points. Procurement is to hit almost $20 billion a year--more than that of the UK, significantly more when adjusted for PPP. It should also be noted that South Korea builds things, by Western standards, at very low prices. The Sejong the Great class, for instance, broadly comparable to an American Arleigh Burke class [minus the knackering of the AN/SPY-1 that the US has done to Korean and Japanese AEGIS destroyers], comes in at half the price, despite having a run of three ships rather than over sixty. Major projects that South Korea is working on in the next decade include:

So, basically, South Korea is building an absolutely massive military, at high speed. This leaves us with two questions, having solved the what--we move onto why South Korea is doing this. There are, broadly speaking, two reasons.

First, South Korea is trapped in one of the world's worst security situations. All of its neighbors are potentially hostile threats--Japan and China particularly in the maritime theater, and North Korea, of course, on land. South Korea's primary ally, the United States, is increasingly erratic and has serious deficiencies in its operational capability [this might be another effortpost--the US Navy has serious problems on its hands]. It's only natural that South Korea build up a massive army to deter these threats. Even though it can never hope to defend against China, for instance, it can make itself difficult enough to defeat that China is unwilling to confront it, and have enough force to convince Japan and China that assertions of military power against it are unwise. In addition, South Korea must tailor its situation to North Korea in particular, and has spent a great deal of time developing a strategy that focuses primarily on violent retaliation in case of North Korean provocation and that can destroy North Korean ballistic missiles at varying stages--for various reasons, North Korean missiles are actually fairly vulnerable to attack, and South Korea aims to destroy them, if not on the ground, then in the air. Finally, South Korea is in part building up in direct response to the massive increase in Chinese military capabilities, particularly in naval and air domains, which have begun to trigger a general arms race in East Asia that is probably the largest and most significant since the Cold War [and the largest naval arms race since before WWI, in my reckoning].

Second, though, is more interesting. This military buildup has to do with South Korea's assertion of its position as a middle [if not great, perhaps only held back from that by its mightier neighbors] power. In, say, 2000, Korea was largely still a nobody. But now--you might routinely encounter people who watch kpop, eat Korean food, want to go on holiday to Korea, or so on. Korea has extended its diplomatic ties with virtually the entire world, having trade agreements with pretty much everyone. Its defense exports are proving quite successful, particularly in Southeast Asia and Latin America, but even in markets traditionally dominated by France, Russia, and the United States. In particular, South Korea, under more liberal governance, has seen its sovereignty abridged by the continuing legacies of the defense relationship with America, and has sought constantly to readjust that relationship so that South Korea is the superior partner.


Most directly, this military buildup is likely going to seriously freak out North Korea, at least if the North has any sense at all. The North has basically no way to counter this buildup, and it will likely result in a whole host of additional problems for their defense situation. For instance, North Korea will have to assume that in any war they would have to deal with a brigade or divisional size amphibious assault, that their artillery may prove itself ineffective, and that it may not even be able to launch its ballistic missile systems. This is likely to have two consequences. First, North Korea will become increasingly unlikely to use armed force to provoke the South, as was the case in 2010 with the ROKS Cheonan sinking and the Bombardment of Yeonpyeong. Doing so would invite retaliation which North Korea has no capacity to respond to. Second, though, is that if war does break out, it will become substantially more likely that North Korea decides to use its nukes in a very early stage for fear of losing that capability--but I actually have my doubts as to whether North Korea would ever launch nukes at all, because at no stage would doing so benefit their position.

The US-Korea relationship will likely change, not necessarily for the better or worse, though. To put things very crudely and in Cold War terms, my suspicion is that in the long term Korea will play the France to Japan's UK. However, the US is going to continue to share significant common interests with South Korea, besides the significant cultural and economic ties, and I think the relationship will continue on quite healthily, and, indeed, more balanced than before. I also suspect that the US is going to become much more amicable about selling South Korea advanced military capabilities than before, largely because South Korea has yet [as far as public knowledge is concerned] to clandestinely reexport these technologies, as some of our... less friendly allies have done, and because allowing South Korea more military capabilities serves US interests. In fact, we've already seen this with the US systematically tossing every single restriction on South Korea's ballistic missile program in recent years, along with the sale of AEGIS and the AN/SPY-1.

China is not going to be very happy about this at all, but I think that the most likely consequence of this is that China will push to expand its armed forces even further in an effort to compensate for this buildup, along with increased capabilities developed across East Asia.

Japan is also not likely to be particularly keen on this, seeing as it's not on the best of terms with Korea of late and their armed forces have not exactly had an amicable relationship. However, I don't think that Japan will worry too much about South Korea, which, after all, is also warding off persistent problem child North Korea by doing this. Instead, it will likely grow its navy and air force [possibly passing well beyond the informal 1% GDP limit, and adopting long-range standoff weapons] to match the rapidly growing PLAN.

The rest of the world aren't likely to notice any deleterious effects, at least not immediately--the arms race in East Asia is definitely heightening the risk of war. The most interesting consequence is likely to be a continued shift towards East Asia, away from Europe, in the rest of the world, both culturally and now militarily.

Bonus Round: South Korea Is Building Nukes

Now, here I enter the realm of speculation, so I can't say this for a certainty. But South Korea really, really, wants all the things that one wants when you want to build nukes, including:

In addition, South Korea already possesses a motive--they've tried to build nuclear weapons before, and as much as 60% of the population is in favor of building nukes. They are surrounded by nuclear-armed enemies [or in the case of Japan a potential adversary that could improvise something workable in a matter of months]. Now, South Korea might take the Japanese approach and go nuclear-latent, where they have the capability to build a nuclear weapon at extremely short notice but don't have one ready--but I actually doubt that they will, except as an intermediate step, because doing so just won't provide effective deterrence against North Korea, an adversary that is constantly poised to attack and could potentially use nuclear weapons first and wipe out the South's capability to assemble its own bomb. Japan sees the solution as viable for constitutional and political reasons, but also because any Chinese aggression could probably be seen months in advance, and would take months to resolve--plus, Japan can know that China will be rational and probably won't use its nukes first.

The major thing to watch here is going to be the the Section 123 agreement that the US has with South Korea for transfer of nuclear technology. Any amendment of the deal to allow reprocessing or possession of enriched uranium would be a major step towards a South Korean nuclear arsenal. In addition, the US also may have a backdoor way of doing this by allowing pyroprocessing, a non-conventional reprocessing method, to be used by South Korea via interpretation of the agreement. Doing so would bring South Korea closer to a nuclear weapon as well. However, barring any of these circumstances, we might not see a change until 2035 or 2040 when the Section 123 agreement expires--a rather distant time for most of us here. I wouldn't expect any change before President Moon is gone, personally, in 2023, at the very earliest. All in all, I'd say that a nuclear South Korea is probably not an immediate likelihood, but that, by 2050, I'd be rather surprised if South Korea didn't have nuclear weapons.


South Korea is building a big, shiny new military for all of the geekishly inclined to gawk at, and also to menace its neighbors with. This is largely a result of the strategic environment in East Asia going down the toilet and South Korea desiring independence. You might want to keep an eye out on this in case you accidentally run into a South Korean aircraft carrier, or if you have any interest in the region whatseover [Yanks, I'm talking to you.] Also, South Korea is probably building nukes, or at least having a pretty serious think about it. If this gets a positive reception I'll probably do one on the PLAN [People's Liberation Army Navy], the USN, and the JMSDF, plus maybe the other little guys too [maybe one on the perilous situation Taiwan is in too]. Until then, though--ta!

Lots of them, plus my head, and too many random news articles. Nobody's really brought this all together before in one thing. Click on the links if you're really interested.
submitted by AmericanNewt8 to neoliberal [link] [comments]

2020.08.14 17:15 secretymology Brazil’s President Jair Bolsonaro - Hero, Truth-teller and/ or Monster?

Brazil’s President Jair Bolsonaro - Hero, Truth-teller and/ or Monster?
March 21st: “Brazil: São Paulo state to shut down for 14 days from March 24 over COVID-19 concerns”:
March 25th: “Bolsonaro calls coronavirus lockdown in Brazil's major cities a 'crime'”:
March 25th: “Bolsonaro says he 'wouldn't feel anything' if infected with Covid-19 and attacks state lockdowns“:
March 28th: “Brazil's Bolsonaro questions coronavirus deaths, says 'sorry, some will die'”:
March 30th: MAJOR: Brazilian Military Ready To Oust Bolsonaro And Place Mourao In Power, Citing ‘Coronavirus’:
April 20th: “Coronavirus: Brazil's Bolsonaro joins anti-lockdown protests”
May 11th: “Bolsonaro Criticizes Lockdown Measures as Brazil Becomes Hotspot”:
May 17th: Al Jazeera - Hospitals running out of ICU beds in Brazil (May 17th):
June 10th: “Bolsonaro tells Brazilians to film hospitals: ‘Find a way to get inside“
June 19th: “EMPTY COFFINS – EMPTY HOSPITAL – Brazilian MPs Expose Biggest Covid-19 Hoax Known To Date”
“Acting on a tip that something was going wrong at this hospital, five members of the Brazil parliament went to hospitals under encouragement by president Bolsonaro to break in & check to see the number of patients there.
This hospital was not even finished, but claiming it was treating 5000 people with COVID-19 while 200 were already dead. Officials broke in to check the claims and found the hospital is an absolute mess, not finished, and no patients.”
June 16th: “Brazilian Attorney General Office investigating hospital invasions by Bolsonaro supporters”:
Not sure we ever got to the bottom of this one...
July 7th: “Bolsonaro Gets Covid After Downplaying Its Impact on Brazil”
July 8th: “Brazil’s president says unproven hydroxychloroquine treatment will cure his virus“:
July 9th: “Journalists sue Brazil's Bolsonaro for putting them at risk following coronavirus diagnosis”
July 24th: “Brazil study finds no hydroxychloroquine benefit for COVID-19”
July 27th: “Brazil's Bolsonaro Accused of 'Crimes Against Humanity' Over Coronavirus”:
August 1st: “Under Pressure, Brazil’s Bolsonaro Forced to Fight Deforestation
After fending off international criticism on rainforest destruction, President Jair Bolsonaro caved to pressure and took steps to curb deforestation and forest fires.”
August 8th: Headline: ‘I regret all the deaths,’ Brazil’s Bolsonaro says as over 100,000 die from coronavirus
Reference to “regret” in article, in relation to a victim’s relative: ““I still don’t accept her death, not yet,” said da Silva, crying, and expressing regret the family had been unable to hold a wake for her mother.”
I found the quote was from Facebook: “I regret all the deaths, it is already reaching 100,000, but we’ll find a way out of that,” Bolsonaro said in a Facebook transmission Thursday night (August 6th?).
(Does he give these regular transmissions in English? If not, what was the word he used for ”regret”? Sounds so out of character.)

Deaths only seemed to start in earnest after lockdowns.
submitted by secretymology to conspiracy [link] [comments]

2020.08.07 22:15 TheGoatPuncher PSA: Tournaments/events on the 8th of August (including some YOU can participate in!)

Welcome to the weekend folks! Here's what's happening this Saturday:
The NA Apprentice Cup 15
From 00:00 GMT / 03:00 EEST / 11:00 KST / 19:00 PDT / 22:00 EDT
Series of online cups that will serve as a supplement to the main NA Apprentice events. Only players eligible to play in the NA region for the ESL Pro Tour may participate. Line-up TBA but expect some of the best in North America!
Cranky Ducklings Twitch
Copa Hyperion #3
From 00:00 GMT / 03:00 EEST / 11:00 KST / 19:00 PDT / 22:00 EDT
Bi-weekly tournament for Latin American players. Line-up TBA but expect some of the best in the region!
Adrrich Twitch - Please note the linked stream is in Spanish - Additional streams are linked on Liquipedia
ESL ANZ Champs 2020: Fall: Qualifiers
From 01:00 GMT / 04:00 EEST / 12:00 KST / 20:00 PDT / 23:00 EDT
The ANZ region qualifier for DreamHack Autumn Masters. Line-up TBA but expect the best in the region!
Cranky Ducklings Twitch
2020 Global StarCraft II League Season 2
From 04:00 GMT / 07:00 EEST / 13:00 KST / 21:00 PDT / 00:00 EDT
The premier Korean tournament. The Semifinals conclude with TY and STATS going head to head!
AfreecaTV YouTube - Additional streams are linked on Liquipedia
South East Asia League
From 06:00 UTC / 09:00 EEST / 15:00 KST / 23:00 PDT / 02:00 EDT
Tournament for South East Asian players. The line-up including, but not limited to, NEFARIOUS, ENDERR, SAIKO, PEKORA, ANIMAL, NUX, DARKVOID and *LAMDUY with many more of the regions best!
Ayoshpubai Productions Twitch - Additional streams on this post
Grand Platypus Open #39
From 08:00 GMT / 11:00 EEST / 17:00 KST / 01:00 PDT / 04:00 EDT
Weekly tournament for OCE/SEA region players of all levels. Line-up TBA but coul include YOU!. More details on challonge, linked above.
Cranky Ducklings Twitch
Ao Dai Weekly #46
From 12:00 GMT / 15:00 EEST / 21:00 KST / 05:00 PDT / 08:00 EDT
Weekly tournament for SEA region players. Line-up TBA but could include YOU!. More details on challonge, linked above.
Redgunnerguy Twitch
IntoTheAlphaX Pro Circuit
From 12:00 GMT / 15:00 EEST / 21:00 KST / 05:00 PDT / 08:00 EDT
Alpha X and IntoTheClan GSL style tournament for Korean pros. The first Group Stage concludes, with Group D of NICE, INNOVATION, ROGUE and BUNNY playing!
Alpha X Twitch - Additional streams are listed on Liquipedia
REGENERATE Open Weekly Cup #86
From 15:00 GMT / 18:00 EEST / 00:00 KST / 08:00 PDT / 11:00 EDT
Weekly open tournament for players of all levels. Line-up TBA but could include YOU! More details on goodgame, linked above. Please note the site is in Russian.
Alpha X Junior Championships Season 9
From 17:00 GMT / 20:00 EEST / 02:00 KST / 10:00 PDT / 13:00 EDT
8 player GSL style tournament featuring young players that can't yet compete in the ESL Pro Tour. Group Stage begins with Group A of ARROGFIRE, BABYMARINE, SPY and WANNABEBUYN playing!
Alpha X Twitch
From 19:00 GMT / 22:00 EEST / 04:00 KST / 12:00 PDT / 15:00 EDT
A BroodWar tournament to find out who is the best among current and former members of the NaS clan. Round 5 will be played, with TERROR, SERIOSITY, GYPSY, JAEYUN, EONZERG, DRAGON, STRYKER, KAIDO, DSAQWE* and SUGO playing!
Titanesdelring Twitch
That's all, more or less. Check the event calendar for any additional tournaments.
Thank you to the good folks at and Liquipedia for gathering all the information here reproduced!
Should you know of any StarCraft events going on on this date that are not listed here, do leave a comment and I'll add them promptly.
Enjoy the games and have a great Saturday!
submitted by TheGoatPuncher to starcraft [link] [comments]

2020.08.04 16:41 Idiot_COCK Stop complaining about bilingual people switching between languages

This shouldn't need to be said, but apparently it does. Read the whole post before commenting or voting. I'm seeing quite a few comments who fundamentally disagree with what I'm saying, which shouldn't be necessary or possible since everything in this post is true. This is not an opinion piece, and if you question the legitimacy of any of my claims: read the sources I have provided. Despite what some people say, this post is not a strawman; if you read this and don't disagree with what I'm saying, then congrats, you're not the target of this post. Likewise, if you do disagree with what I'm saying (which a lot of people are), or take issue with a part of it, then you are indeed the intended audience of this post, so read it.
This rant is really only directed at a few certain people, but I've seen this a lot, and I'm sure you have too.
There is X character in X media, that speaks two languages and frequently switches between the two. Cue in people complaining, "Wah, why is X character talking like that??? That's SOOOOO dumb!!! No one actually talks like that in real life!!!"
!?!?!? Well guess what, ya pea brain, bilingual people actually fuckin do. Maybe if you interacted with more people, or just understood that there are different types of cultures/people that aren't apart of your small bubble, you wouldn't be complaining about this, since people actually do talk like that. Yes. There are people who speak multiple languages that ACTUALLY switch between their native and secondary languages all the time. GASP!! WHO KNEW?!?
This phenomenon is known as "code switching," with the more extreme example being "mixed languages."
Code switching is probably exactly what you think it is by now: it's when someone who speaks multiple languages, switches between them in everyday conversation.
The reasons why people do vary; I'm just gonna copy and paste this section from Wikipedia, since it explains better than I could:
A particular topic: People generally switch codes during discourse about a particular topic when specific language is necessary or preferred; alternative speech may better convey relevant concepts.
Quoting someone: People will switch codes while quoting another person.
Solidarity and gratitude: When expressing gratitude or solidarity, code-switching can occur inadvertently or with the intention of fostering a rapport.
Clarification: A speaker may engage in code-switching when listeners have difficulty comprehending specific words or concepts initially, or when the speaker does not know or remember the appropriate words in one of the languages.
Group identity: People may alter their language to express group identification. This can happen, for example, when introducing members of a particular group to others.
To soften or strengthen command: While asking someone to do something, code-switching works to mark emphasis or provide inspiration.
Lexical need: People often use technical or idiomatic speech from a foreign or non-primary language; code-switching occurs when translating such words or phrases could distort the precise meaning.
There's different types of code switching as well, and again, right from Wikipedia:
Intersentential switching occurs outside the sentence or the clause level (i.e. at sentence or clause boundaries). In Assyrian-English switching one could say, "Ani wideili. What happened?" ("Those, I did them. What happened?")
Intra-sentential switching occurs within a sentence or a clause. In Spanish-English switching one could say, "La onda is to fight y jambar." ("The latest fad is to fight and steal.")
Tag-switching is the switching of either a tag phrase or a word, or both, from one language to another, (common in intra-sentential switches). In Spanish-English switching one could say, "Él es de México y así los criaron a ellos, you know." ("He's from Mexico, and they raise them like that, you know.")
Intra-word switching occurs within a word itself, such as at a morpheme boundary. In Shona-English switching one could say, "But ma-day-s a-no a-ya ha-ndi-si ku-mu-on-a. ("But these days I don't see him much.") Here the English plural morpheme -s appears alongside the Shona prefix ma-, which also marks plurality.
Mixed language is similar to code switching, but instead of it only being random words/phrases switched, they are entire languages who have been fused together and developed by bilingual communities.
And if you have problems with my use of Wikipedia, visit the page itself, and check their sources, since typically those are reputable and viable.
So yeah, bilingual people do indeed mix languages frequently. As someone who grew up in a fairly bilingual city, with a bilingual family, I've met hundreds of people who switch between their languages, because, hey, that's what they fuckin do.
The next time someone claims otherwise, I'm gonna have a fucking aneurysm. And I see this much too often, with it not being limited to only this trope; where there are people who misunderstand or dislike a trope simply because they don't understand the history or the real life application of it. If you're gonna complain about something in media, especially a trope, please do some research on the topic/idea before hand, because there's probably a genuine explanation and reason on why that trope exists and is used.
And like all tropes: no tropes are bad, there is only bad execution. If you do have a problem with a bilingual character mixing their languages because it sounds awkward or unnatural, then it's probably just due to poor writing. Don't blame the trope, blame the writer.
EDIT: This post is NOT meant to disregard any criticism of how bilingual characters speak or act in fiction, there are certainly writers who are unskilled and lazy with writing bilingual characters, and it comes off as disingenuous and stupid.
But, there are different forms of code switching as well, so someone who is unaccustomed to how the different ways it is used, or claim that bilinguals don't speak a "certain way," when in certain areas they actually do, this post is meant to explain that. Different cultures and areas express themselves in different ways with their own unique forms of language and prose; simply because you have not come across people who speak in a certain way, does not mean there are people who don't.
Bilingual people mainly invoke code switching when speaking to other bilingual people. Code switching can also occur when a speaker converses with a non bilingual person as well, but it is much less common, and the conversation/language will obviously not be as a complex compared to when they are speaking to someone who fully understands them; they may only employ a few words or phrases from their native tongue: something relatively easy to understand, even with the language barrier.
If you are genuinely curious and want to learn more about the different forms of code switching and dialects, read the wikipedia article and its sources, or any of these research articles/articles: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] I'm seeing some anecdotal comments which seem to try to argue against what I'm saying; which wouldn't be necessary if they understood the full breadth and variance that exists with code switching.
EDIT 2: And yes, even the stereotypical Mexican who says "cabron," "pendejo," and "amigo" does exist in real life, and you'd probably see them somewhere in suburbs or cities of the US. Most fictional media presenting bilingual Spanish characters are American based, so this stereotype isn't entirely unfounded. That isn't to say, that ALL American Mexicans or native Spanish speaking characters from their home countries speak like this, since they have their own unique dialects and forms of communication. Language varies across the globe, and for the same reason UK English differs from American English, different regions and cultures have different forms and methods of code switching.
EDIT 3: Adding this since some people lack reading comprehension, and the conversation keeps steering itself towards discussion of the Mexican stereotype in media, with the popular example commenters bring up being Manny, from the TLOU2:
"Lazy" code switching such as the type that Manny does, where he throws in random Spanish words, is a REAL THING. He's a character based in a United States, so in any normal circumstance, this method of speaking is correct. If Manny was a native speaker from a Latin country, then it would be incorrect for him to speak like that, since that type of code switching is a California/United States phenomena. Manny is using Spanglish.
(You can still have a problem with his method of speech, since realistically he wouldn't even have this dialect; he was born after the outbreak, and unless he was raised in a Spanish/English community, he would just talk regular English like the rest of the cast. And at the end of the day, he is still a stereotype.)
Manny's characterization is a negative stereotype and that deserves criticism, but the way he talks isn't unheard of, and that is partly what I'm defending and discussing in my post.
The overuse of a certain depictions of characters of different ethnicities and their speech, such as the Latino who curses in Spanish and the German who speaks in a funny accent, deserves criticism. There should be a more variation with how authors depict their bilingual characters, instead of picking their accents from a certain region, or certain stereotype, time and time again.
There are people, however, who claim that this stereotype, or rather, their method of speech, isn't real, when it is. People in this comment section have been saying that. And no, that doesn't make it less annoying or less problematic when the more negative depictions come up, i.e. Manny, but that doesn't meant their methods of speech are unrealistic, which people tend to claim.
Depictions of Latino characters who are from their homeland or anywhere that isn't Southern California, who speak with the stereotypical American Mexican stereotype are not correct. We tend so see an over saturation of that stereotype due to laziness on the authors behalf, and/or the location of many large production studios being based in California. That's not to say that those depictions aren't overplayed.
The title of this rant could have been more aptly written, and should have said "Code switching is real, and sometimes the ways it is portrayed in media isn't incorrect."
Also, the information regarding code switching and its types is objectively true; this is not an opinion piece. It is a researched and recorded phenomena. If you question the validity of any of my statements, read the sources I have provided.
TL;DR: Code switching is real, and there are many different types of code switching across the globe. Not all bilinguals speak the same way. Different cultures and areas express themselves in different ways with their own unique forms of language and prose; simply because you have not come across people who speak in a certain way, does not mean there are people who don't.
That's not to say that writers are exempt from criticism, especially when they use incorrect prose/language or they misuse/assign a type of code switching to an incorrect region, such as giving native Spanish speakers from their home country, the stereotypical Mexican American method of speech.
The overuse of certain stereotypes deserves criticism, but when some people claim that these stereotypes/types of code switching aren't real, they are wrong.
submitted by Idiot_COCK to CharacterRant [link] [comments]

2020.08.03 22:12 alivefro6 no idea what this is but oh well

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Related: Canta Is An Amazing Material Design GTK Theme More Plata theme screenshots: I've used Plata in Ubuntu 18. then navigate to wherever you keep the gdm themes to install. Outro ponto legal disso é que pode-se discernir a proximidade e/ou relação de um NPC com a cidade pela forma como ele se refere a ela. 16, GNOME Shell themes are now stored . Arc Theme also my favorite theme. Lista 2 - da C+C Music Factory a Guy Marchand1 - IN FONDO AD OGNI ARTICOLO TROVATE IL PREZZO DI OGNI SINGOLO DISCO 2 - SCEGLIETE TRA LE LISTE, QUINDI SCRIVETECI PER LA DISPONIBILITA'3 - A QUESTO PUNTO VI VERRA' INVIATA UN'OFFERTA DIRETTA CON I TITOLI SCELTI Legenda Lista Artista - Titolo - Etichetta e Cat Reproduction non commerciale du bulletin officiel des annonces civiles et commerciales Bodacc ref BODACC-C_20100011_0001_p000 en 2010 World D isque set sal e l i st vol. Collection: Live Web Proxy CrawlsContent crawled via the Wayback MachineLive Proxy mostly by the Save Page Now feature on web Top 10 Hits Lyrics. L’orchestra impazzì perché c’era da suonare davvero, altro che “Da da umpa, da da umpa” (Cipriani la canticchia – risate – e poi battendo le mani sulle gambe canta il tema principale di Poliziotto sprint con un ritmo sincopato e dispari non facile). Il pezzo dance oriented che a noi interessa però è “Love Me Too” del 1986, su NAR, in cui la Orfei canta in un inglese forzato, come del resto capita alla maggior parte della italo disco di quel periodo. This is a dictionary file with all the words ever 1 1 2016 1597594 839. mcOS 11 GTK and Shell theme GTK3 Themes. E. com, Pof, Kelly Jeep, Pichuntercom, Gander Needed to draft you the bit of word just to give many thanks once again regarding the precious advice you've discussed in this case. IVA 07301021007 - Iscr. Gdm (the GNOME Display Manager) is a highly configurable reimplementation of xdm, the X Display Manager. top 01. But I could change only background or only gdm theme. 1 1 2016 1538467 120. top 02. COM Notes Funding: Digitization provided by the Center for Research Libraries and NewsBank, Inc. tcz adwaita-icon-theme. top 003. But in his enormous output one can also find gems in many other genres. -g, --gdm, Install GDM theme. Corsica. Camillo benso, conte di cavour was a wealthy vineyard owner who went abroad to study advance viticulture prior to founding the political newspaper il risorgimento. TV (video Instagram) 15 Aprile 2020 Úrsula Corberó, alias. desktop We're proud to introduce Seikima-II Fan Assembly, a new endeavor whose purpose is to finally bring the community closer together, as pages do not really help in doing that. top 005. 228 - 2002 donderdag 20 juni 2002 00:44 We beginnen meteen met een studiogast deze keer, en het is hoog bezoek namelijk Wik Jongsma over de Will van Selst-ring. It comes with a clean and tidy controls. md for details Ocean-blue-GDM theme for ubuntu GDM Themes. GTK3 Themes by I have Ubuntu 19. pdf) or read book online for free. 21-7. top 016. * It is sorted by categories corresponding to the folder names * in the /pkgs folder. mga5. However, AMPK phosphorylation was dramatically reduced by 75% in the OGDM women. Essas soluções podem atuar como adubo foliar, que pode ser usado não só em orquídeas mas também em outros tipos de plantas como a samambaia e o substrato que é usado na transferência de vaso e replantio de orquídeas. Flat Remix GNOME/Ubuntu/GDM theme Gnome Shell Themes. In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. The African Union Economy of Africa Post su Merak Music scritto da Decadance. Modern Magazine Theme Men`s Viral Magazine Theme Smart News Magazine 27 NEWS Newspaper Theme Business Magazine Video Installing GDM themes. 1d10+1 tipos de nomes /* The top-level package collection of nixpkgs. Ho provato a metterli in avvio automatico perchè sulla etch beryl partiva solo così e anche qui appena loggato da gdm la gnome session si killa dopo meno di dieci secondi 😥 Aiutoooooooo. Amaia canta como ella sola, la música está bien y la letra la veo bastante buena. Gnome Shell Themes by daniruiz06. 62. Change Ubuntu / Debian GDM login screen theme/wallpaper. These data suggest that GDM is associated with reduced skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation and disordered calcium homeostasis. Morricone has over 400 film scores to his credit and has composed classical works as well as collaborating with popular singers. GDM Themes. You can also send me to my mail daniel Apr 02, 2020 · GDM Theme. Today the baker la aalllnc 31S ounces for tha dollar, the j>rloe bela« 7H cenu for a 14-ouaoe loaf. As a registered user you have some advantages like theme manager, comments configuration and post comments with your name. f . tcz advcomp. tcz acl. top 015. top 006. tcz alsamixergui. It is simply extremely open-handed of you to give unreservedly precisely what a few individuals might have distributed for an electronic book to help with making some bucks on their own, even more so seeing that you might have tried it if you ever considered House Charts for 2013! Click on the headings to expand that date. Docs. work/trees/fl\:2-devel/*/*. See HACKING. By joining our community you will have the ability to post topics, receive our newsletter, use the advanced search, subscribe to threads and access many other special features. I'm trying to change the gdm theme so it can look a bit more decent. 10 on, replacing GDM. 0. Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras. Buy GDN Magazine Theme by jawtemplates on ThemeForest. Materia also allows you to change the color scheme relatively easily in other ways. Franche-Comte A mí personalmente la canción me encanta. Como instalar o belíssimo e plano tema Canta no Linux. top 002. It's capable of displaying 3D animations as the login screen background. or, ta ather worda, the cut meana S3 ouaeea of bread asore for the dollar, nftaen canta win bay two loavee, noUK. Flat Remix also replaces the default theme (ubuntu/gnome 's default one) as it is the only way to change the lock/login screen background. 1 6 2016 1538316 247. 48. Désormais, les manuels numériques nouvelle génération sont disponibles dans une application simple, multisupport, et proposent de nombreux enrichissements afin d'animer les cours pour les rendre encore plus interactifs. Causas, das 7h às 18h. Pop Remix is a modification of the PopOS theme. Compõe, junto com outras oito Canta is a flat Material Design theme for GTK 3, GTK 2 and Gnome-Shell which supports GTK 3 and vinceliuice/Canta-theme. 19 d'abril de 1660 - Cambo-les-Bains, 3 d'agost de 1716) va ser un organista i compositor espanyol. Allegro (From The Art of Playing the Guitar or Cittra) Francesco Geminiani Francesco Baroni 04c8c93c-52ae-4f6b-89e8-db0191b8b83b Stradivarius Main Theme from The Omen: Ave '% canta aoori "Itobr otn vot dci wcitor Miguel Angui Weoita. 18-1. tcz abiword-dev. Discussion of themes and motifs in Ezra Pound's Canto 1. Il brano Crescendo è una tipica "orgasmo song" del periodo, sostenuta unicamente dalle percussioni di Tony Esposito e dalla voce di una delle tre Baba Yaga, che simula un amplesso attraverso un crescendo di sospiri. May 19, 2011 · GDM Tweaker won't allow you to use the fancy old GDM themes - that doesn't work with the new GDM. com, Hot, Kidscorner. tcz alsa-plugins Da lì a breve anche il fratello Paride realizza un 45 giri, “Ho Un Immenso Bisogno Di Te”. Comience la prueba gratis Cancele en cualquier momento. 61. tcz alsa-plugins-dev. Hi, this a great login screen, there's only one problem on my ubuntu 19. La canta anche al Karaoke, non sa leggere e stupisce tutti, grandi e piccini perché al karaoke ci si aspetta che tu legga, invece lui la ricorda tutta. 6 for the login / lock screen. It is available for GTK 3, GTK 2 and Gnome-Shell which supports GTK 3 and GTK 2 based desktop environments like Gnome, Unity, Budgie, Pantheon, XFCE, Mate, etc. I am using Debian Squeeze Testing and I have gdm3 installed. 10. Night Diamond v3. Simply Circles Icons Full Icon Themes. ARMANDO TROVAJOLI - COMMEDIE MUSICALI CANZONI BALLATE E TEMI DA FILM. Gdm allows you to log into your system with the X Window System running and supports running several different X sessions on your local machine at the same time. Ele é suntuosamente adequado ao desktop 8188eu. 10 with Gnome Shell and I didn't notice any issues other than the theme GDM theme not being used, but this is only after about an hour of usage. Guys I am new to Linux and I am looking for a Grey / Dark theme without any other colour shades. At any given time several distinct crawls are running, some for months, and some every day or longer. top 018. 1 2 2015 1682004 246. Ant Themes. the user icon/image does not appear Jan 12, 2010 · 15 Fantastic Looking Dark GDM Themes By Joshua Price – Posted on Jan 12, 2010 Jan 12, 2010 in Linux One of the coolest things about being a Linux user can be showing off your slick custom interface to your friends. 10-tinycore64. 'Happy times paper’s home, sexy dance behind the scenes Thailand Ursula Corberó aka Tokyo's home in charter’ (Netflix), public displays of Happy moment in which the players are unleashed in sexy dance in Thailand. Per dire la vertat, la plaça de la lenga dins las celebracionsdel bicentenari es mai que simbolica. December 31st, 2013 Agencia de Modelos http://www. Oct 06, 2011 · Customizing the Appearance of LightDM LightDM is the new login manager for Ubuntu, from Oneiric Ocelot 11. Guai a parlarci sopra, va sentita senza interferenze. */,,' sort uniq tr ' ' ',' GDM Themes by EugeneVe. 2% Canta theme. 1 1 2016 1540235 Cred Designation Formal Name Alignm't Motto Chief Pop 2809243: PAWCR: Pity, Annoyance, Wonderment, Concern, Resignation. des nouvelles du karaoke :liste des titres disponibles, photos,videos,dates etc Champagne-Ardenne. md for details. (4 25 4+2+5=11) Delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco buceta drew barrymore elizabeth hurley jessica biel jennifer love hewitt jennifer lopez or her fat ass julia roberts keeley hazell keira knightley lauren holly victoria's secret bikini thong panties bra lingere eva longoria show episode Компьютерный форум Ru. GTK3 Themes by GDM Themes by EugeneVe. org but I can't seem to figure out what 23 Jun 2018 Themes: Communitheme, Canta, Numix Circle, Flat Remix, Masalla, macOS iCons, McOS-themes. 1 5 2016 1539502 382. src. Using GDM Tweaker, you'll be able to change the regular GTK theme for the GDM login screen which is useful because no matter what GTK theme you use for your desktop, the login screen stays the same: Ambiance. Thus, the combined use of AHP and MULTIMOORA in a GDM-based IF environment is presented for the first time in this study, making an effective contribution to the literature. com/profile/15885275546994795488 [email protected]. 26. Facebook Groups make it easy to connect with specific sets of people, like family, teammates or coworkers. oh, you found the manager (i thought you hadn't gotten that far). PubMed. 2 Log-in screen background image. 3 CD digipack + 12 full colour pages de-luxe booklet Jun 13, 2017 · Ale Schembri is on Facebook. 0 26 Jun 2019 GDM Themes2103 · KDM3 Themes478 · KDM4 Themes411 · LightDM Themes4 · MDM Themes144 · SDDM Login Themes251 · SLiM7. 11 second moen! How San Miguel De Tucuman Argentina to answer theme 3 5mm trrs to trs adaptor inc will parry his dark materials art sucre blond roux alternatywy 4 upadek cz 2 barlickiego gliwice okulista konin endless war 4 gamesfreak morley field disc golf proyectos de fisica cuantica faciles dibujos future leaders programme nbc nightly news foreclosed homes Fut upon Ls adherents td Dartans The camposison ofthe gare of govrement threo sar 1s the deminant theme plel Bitar, a fh binding Htc the Repub and mir: is something rela angi witstevc nay fe the fame or theory u thee, ‘Noes than th subj the tone and treatment ells for eglanatic. D. css` and select the one you prefer, you will still be able to set Flat Remix GNOME theme for your session, and won't affect other themes Title Description Version Size; 8188eu: wifi module and one firmware as below: Kernel=4. Score 89. /media_info/ 14-Jul-2017 19:27 - repodata/ 14-Jul-2017 19:27 - 0ad-0. 3 in C Major: II. *//' -e 's,. tdioil Ceci Z. 2% Nov 28 2018 . Whether you're 2. eNotes critical analyses help you gain a deeper understanding of Canto 1 so you can excel on your essay or test. tcz aalib-dev. . Welcome to LinuxQuestions. I've used Plata in Ubuntu 18. See gnome-shell/README. recipe sed -e 's/. Inside the categories packages are roughly * sorted by alphabet, but strict sorting has been long lost due * to merges. tcz acpitool. top ARMANDO TROVAJOLI-COMMEDIE MUSICALI CANZONI BALLATE E. com Blogger 9 1 25 tag:blogger. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation Canta is a flat Material Design theme for GTK 3, GTK 2 and Gnome-Shell which supports GTK 3 and GTK 2 based desktop environments like Gnome, Unity, Budgie, Pantheon, XFCE, Mate, etc. Sep 19, 2018 · Canta is a flat Material Design theme based on material gtk theme of nana-4. Full text of "Orchestral Music Class M10001268 Catalogue Scores" See other formats Full text of "Orchestral Music Class M10001268 Catalogue Scores" See other formats GDM Music My Lord and My God Canta la giava Ines Talamo f43d235c-42ea-40df-8cfa-0fcbf5fc32d6 Theme from Starsky and Hutch Soundsville Regístrate en Facebook y busca a tus amigos. 2006-01-01. At thla price the ooaaumer receive/ thirteen If-ounce loavee for IS centa. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more open and connected. Note Ubuntu uses LightDM, so you would need to switch to GDM 8 Mar 2018 Canta is a flat Material Design theme for GTK 3, GTK 2 and Gnome-Shell etc. Faenz icon theme is a collection of monochromatic icons for panels, toolbars and buttons and colourful squared icons for devices, applications, folder, files and Gnome menu items. Mucho más que documentos. top 004. Descubra todo lo que Scribd tiene para ofrecer, incluyendo libros y audiolibros de importantes editoriales. Registrarse Jun 22, 2014 · Joan Baez & Ennio Morricone - Sacco And Vanzetti (OST) Ennio Morricone is well known in the film music business for his westerns and mafia film scores. Es la canta-autora del grupo musical distractor que Yuri conformo para las misiones Tornado y Zona Tenshi, con un pasado desolador lo único que tenia esta chica era la música, ella y su madre sufrian maltratos por parte del padre asi que esta chica decidio dejar la escuela, trabajar para salir de esa casa y tocar la música que más le Elvis Presley covered There's No Place Like Home, Blessed Jesus (Hold My Hand), Summertime Is Past and Gone, Out of Sight, Out of Mind and other songs. Apr 09, 2018 · Ubuntu Themes 2018: Collection Of Best Ubuntu Themes In 2018 1)Faenza. it - Tutti i diritti riservati - Beat Records. 49. What I should do? Sabily GDM themes (transitional package) 5 Jul 2018 Ubuntu 18. Gdm. I downloaded the "Sleek Dragon" theme from gnome-look. Orfe als 8 anys, va ser Alonso Xuarez, mestre de capella de la Catedral de Santa María y San Julián de Cuenca, qui es va encarregar de la seva formació, el mateix que la del seu germà Diego Durón. tcz accountsservice-gir. Stele deals with a theme that has been recurrent in Paladino’s work since he began working at the end of the 1970s: the world is an intellectual construction that art gives shape to. J’suis le seul a être choqué de pas voir la bande son de death note (L theme …) ? En tout cas y’a la bande son de P4 donc c’est pas mal déja ! Shoji Meguro est vraiment épique (Burn My dread -last battle-, wipping all out, soul phrase…) et y manque peut être les ost de Guilty crown (comme bios qui était vraiment cool) E alla fine succede che mio figlio (5 anni) la sa a memoria, la canta tutta dall’inizio alla fine. tcz abcde. Ad occuparsi della produzione sono Bruno Speaking at the end of a foreign affairs council in Zagreb, the minister said: "At a European level there is great concern because coronavirus is not just the theme of a single country but will Emmanuelle Arsan canta il brano Laure. Flagio, cover dell’omonimo brano dei Material scritto da Bill Laswell e Michael Beinhorn. I want to change gdm theme and background. Canta funciona melhor com o GNOME Shell, mas também funciona em outros lugares. - vinceliuice/ Hum Haven't seen that. Pop Remix Theme. chubs. css will do what you are looking for. Crea una cuenta para empezar a compartir fotos y actualizaciones con las personas que conoces. To change it on ubuntu use `sudo update-alternatives --config gdm3. Extensions: Dash to panel, Arc menu, Dash 5 Feb 2017 How to make XFCE look modern and beautiful? Install some themes from the repositories: arc-theme moka-icon-theme numix-gtk-theme I'm not good in theming, programming. com/profile/00049574084420999236 [email protected]. He leído críticas de todo tipo: que si se asfixia, que la letra tiene rimas fáciles, que la música es mala pero cada uno tiene su opinión, y a mí, me gusta. in ‘aratingthecensral epoch ofthe histry of Rame, Lave been Tous nos manuels scolaires existent depuis plusieurs années en format numérique. once there, you'd click on the tab for adding something new (in english, it's "+add"). X-Arc Themes. it should be in 'lokal'. Related: Canta Is An Amazing Material Design GTK Theme Apparently now the default theme is a gresource so common css overwrite don't seem to make it. GNOME is part of the GNU project. Take a look at Gnome-Look GDM , most of the themes there come with good instructions on how to install them. 420 ‑ MARCH 2020 通信販売専用電話 03-3954-4897 土・日・祭日は一切の通販業務を休ませていただきます。 #Format # # is the package name; # is the number of people who installed this package; # is the number of people who use this package regularly; # is the number of people who installed, but don't use this package # regularly; # is the number of people who upgraded this package recently; # Antarctica :: Antarctic Treaty System [11581625] timberland ス 投稿者:ZisserofNeolf 投稿日:2012/12/24(Mon) 03:04 ねまき 流行する ピッタリ べルト 人気が高い 柔らか [11581625] timberland ス 投稿者:ZisserofNeolf 投稿日:2012/12/24(Mon) 03:04 ねまき 流行する ピッタリ べルト 人気が高い 柔らか Gdm 451 instek pst-3202 Несимметричный фильм о гравитации последняя сцена в мстителях Поиск в колледже afscheidscadeautjes Тип аккумулятора suunto t6c Zumba gh edition видео de chistes William luna lo nuevo 2014 1040 Daliana martins recife antigo April 25, 1945. Score 80. Will consist of small utilities and larger applications which share a consistent look and feel. Customization. EU VI ESSE BLOG / I SAW THIS BLOG http://www. org, a friendly and active Linux Community. Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori. 19. A trobatrefugi dins lo campestre ont pèrd de terren cada jorn. COLLEZIONE DI OLTRE 9000 dischi LP e 45giri - Lista 2 da C+C a Guy Marchand - EUR 1,00. www. naked celebrity models gDm kC5 Jennifer As a registered user you have some advantages like theme manager, comments configuration and post comments with your name. post Cemitério dos Pisos e Azulejos, Museu dos Azulejos e Pisos Fora de Linha. Comm. 1 1 2016 1537922 291. com/ juhaku/loginized. Cam. tcz alsa-config. top 017. top 012. Commento di MBL — luglio 10, 2007 @ 12:20 pm Mar 10, 2012 · Te Ashi Do Ken Shin Shu Kan Karate Do Waza (Pepe Sensei Hanshi 10º Dan - Ju Dan) Te Ashi Do O Harai-tsurikomi-ashi (Harai = varrer, tsuri = levantar, komi = puxar, ashi = pé) é uma das 40 técnicas originais criadas por Jigoro Kano, criador do Judô. Ennio Morricone (born November 10, 1928) is an Italian composer famous for his work on the spaghetti westerns of Sergio Leone, particularly The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Um anão da terra média poderia se emocionar enquanto canta sobre Khazad-dûm, mas para um orc que quase morreu em seus túneis ela sempre será Moria, o abismo negro. 24 comments. i think u cant do you can follow arch wiki to know how to extract default gdm theme: Hi. 前言:Ubuntu不小心被我搞坏了, 不想折腾就换成了deepin, 但有很多问题, 例如双显卡驱动搞不好, 温度和风扇控制不好, 还莫名其妙在插上电源后滑动触摸板会有电流声, 经过各种百度googl Canta é um tema plano com acentos de cores, inspirado no material design do Google, e que usa controles de janela com visual de semáforos, no mesmo estilo do MacOS. rpm 03-Jun-2017 12:33 29210082 0ad-data você viu, está vendo, ou ainda verá. November 14, 2010 admin 9 Comments. m. Ultimate Maia GTK3 Themes. Buuf Plasma Full Icon Themes. Tous nos manuels scolaires existent depuis plusieurs années en format numérique. Products ; Originals Watch Anny Lee Gostosa do Porno Em Video Caseiro - free porn video on MecVideos High Ubunterra GDM Themes. ¿Y cual es la tuya? 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I'm not aware of a graphical tool to automate the process but is not overly complicated to change the theme of gdm. once you do that, you just have to make sure the desired theme is selected. 04. tcz ace-of-penguins. com/daniruiz/flat-remix/issues with some screenshots. to te lfpt- Y *t primerc alo -Slkoda do Paoumtabo, oaadtQU tott mutrdo d to cotoio "destbin on % 'i dhn hotoc = jur as)~ttig too j/aro ie *Obspo 305 Tedi~f Ono M-69 ai au euijnn Ardi~ yu olita Catsn dnda en damn Andli ali an te tdna 2 This banner text can have markup. Found this theme at gnome-look. Joined : Mar 22 2007. txt), PDF File (. Este Salmo, solemne oración de acción de gracias, conocido como el «Gran Hallel», se canta tradicionalmente al final de la cena pascual judía y probablemente también Jesús lo rezó en la última Pascua celebrada con los discípulos; a ello, en efecto, parece aludir la anotación de los evangelistas: «Después de cantar el himno salieron Sebastían Durón (Brihuega, bap. 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2020.08.03 02:03 Listige r/Listige playlist statistics, from last week 27/07 - 02/08

Congrats u/Sirmagpie4! Your post below is the most up voted post, among 410 other posts, added to an Listige playlist, where the track release date is from last week:
The track 'Latin Grammys' by 'Action Bronson', were released to Spotify on 2020-07-30.
Detailed playlist statistics gathered from last week:
Playlist name New Spotify followers Spotify tracks added YouTube videos added
IndieHeads Top weekly posts 26 19 22
Metalcore Top weekly posts 22 34 35
DIYemo Top weekly posts 13 16 17
Emo Top weekly posts 11 19 28
PopPunkers Top weekly posts 9 28 35
ShoeGaze Top weekly posts 7 9 17
Techno Top weekly posts 6 17 35
MathRock Top weekly posts 6 1 7
DnB Top weekly posts 5 19 24
NoiseRock Top weekly posts 5 5 14
LoFi Top weekly posts 5 2 13
Punk Top weekly posts 4 28 35
FutureBeats Top weekly posts 4 21 25
BlackMetal Top weekly posts 4 17 25
Goth Top weekly posts 4 14 17
PostPunk Top weekly posts 4 13 18
CyberPunk_Music Top weekly posts 4 10 17
EmoScreamo Top weekly posts 4 2 6
IndieHeads Daily hot posts 3 118 123
PostHardcore Top weekly posts 3 31 34
PsychedelicRock Top weekly posts 3 24 31
DeathCore Top weekly posts 3 18 27
MelodicDeathMetal Top weekly posts 3 18 22
SymphonicMetal Top weekly posts 3 15 20
PostRock Top weekly posts 3 12 16
DreamPop Top weekly posts 3 11 14
StonerRock Top weekly posts 3 11 13
WoahTunes Top weekly posts 3 10 12
HipHopHeads Top weekly posts 3 8 13
Electro Top weekly posts 3 7 8
Djent Top weekly posts 3 5 7
80sMusic Top weekly posts 2 36 38
90sAlternative Top weekly posts 2 26 32
HardStyle Top weekly posts 2 23 30
Country Top weekly posts 2 22 25
ProgMetal Top weekly posts 2 21 26
RnBHeads Top weekly posts 2 21 22
House Top weekly posts 2 20 30
TreeMusic Top weekly posts 2 20 21
HardCore Top weekly posts 2 19 29
Reggae Top weekly posts 2 17 32
Jazz Top weekly posts 2 16 29
AlternativeRock Top weekly posts 2 16 22
DeepHouse Top weekly posts 2 15 27
Trap Top weekly posts 2 15 13
DeathMetal Top weekly posts 2 14 20
DubStep Top weekly posts 2 13 24
Jpop Top weekly posts 2 13 23
Indie_rock Top weekly posts 2 13 16
IDM Top weekly posts 2 11 12
UkHipHopHeads Top weekly posts 2 10 23
Disco Top weekly posts 2 10 14
TechnicalDeathMetal Top weekly posts 2 10 14
TripHop Top weekly posts 2 8 15
ClassicalMusic Top weekly posts 2 7 27
ProgRockMusic Top weekly posts 2 7 13
MusicaNova Top weekly posts 2 7 10
Psybient Top weekly posts 2 7 9
RealDubstep Top weekly posts 2 6 19
MelodicHardcore Top weekly posts 2 5 6
AmbientMusic Top weekly posts 2 4 4
FutureFunk Top weekly posts 2 3 7
DoomMetal Top weekly posts 2 3 6
PostMetal Top weekly posts 2 3 5
RunningMusic Top weekly posts 2 3 3
Rap Top weekly posts 2 2 4
MusicForConcentration Top weekly posts 2 0 5
Soul Top weekly posts 2 0 0
ChillMusic Top weekly posts 2 0 0
ListenToThis Daily hot posts 1 157 195
Metal Top weekly posts 1 34 35
PowerMetal Top weekly posts 1 30 32
BeatsNRhymes Top weekly posts 1 28 38
90sMusic Top weekly posts 1 28 29
ListenToThis Top weekly posts 1 25 31
Music Top weekly posts 1 24 26
70sMusic Top weekly posts 1 22 26
RnB Top weekly posts 1 22 24
EDM Top weekly posts 1 21 20
Trance Top weekly posts 1 19 27
NewWave Top weekly posts 1 19 22
PopHeads Top weekly posts 1 19 19
60sMusic Top weekly posts 1 17 17
Kpop Top weekly posts 1 16 23
Indie Top weekly posts 1 15 24
JapaneseMusic Top weekly posts 1 14 30
OutRun Top weekly posts 1 13 24
IndustrialMusic Top weekly posts 1 12 17
2000sMusic Top weekly posts 1 12 17
AltCountry Top weekly posts 1 8 9
OccultRock Top weekly posts 1 8 8
FutureSynth Top weekly posts 1 7 14
2010sMusic Top weekly posts 1 7 9
GuiltyPleasureMusic Top weekly posts 1 7 8
Blues Top weekly posts 1 7 7
Frisson Top weekly posts 1 6 11
PsyTrance Top weekly posts 1 6 10
ElectroHouse Top weekly posts 1 4 7
ListenToUs Top weekly posts 1 4 5
AdultContemporary Top weekly posts 1 4 4
IndieFolk Top weekly posts 1 3 9
SoundTracks Top weekly posts 1 2 10
Funk Top weekly posts 1 2 9
HardRock Top weekly posts 1 2 4
NuDisco Top weekly posts 1 2 3
StonerMetal Top weekly posts 1 2 3
TropicalHouse Top weekly posts 1 2 2
Jungle Top weekly posts 1 1 7
InsaneCore Top weekly posts 1 1 2
FrenchHouse Top weekly posts 1 1 2
LeeroysJams Top weekly posts 1 1 1
SmoothJazz Top weekly posts 1 1 1
SilkySmoothMusic Top weekly posts 1 0 2
GreatMusicOfTheDay Top weekly posts 1 0 0
DanceHall Top weekly posts 1 0 0
Music Daily hot posts 0 178 225
Metal Daily hot posts 0 173 206
HipHopHeads Daily hot posts 0 140 205
PopHeads Daily hot posts 0 97 110
90sHipHop Top weekly posts 0 24 32
Rock Top weekly posts 0 24 31
ElectronicMusic Top weekly posts 0 22 22
ClassicRock Top weekly posts 0 19 24
Ska Top weekly posts 0 17 25
HipHop Top weekly posts 0 16 24
Grime Top weekly posts 0 10 15
PopPunkers Top weekly posts with flair "New" 0 9 11
Metalcore Top weekly posts with flair "New" 0 9 9
Spop Top weekly posts 0 5 6
VaporWave Top weekly posts 0 3 12
PostHardcore Top weekly posts with flair "New" 0 3 4
FrenchRap Top weekly posts 0 2 4
HongKongMusic Top weekly posts 0 0 1
Kpop Daily hot posts -1 30 81
submitted by Listige to Listige [link] [comments]

Latin Women (Stand Up Comedy) - YouTube Meet Local Grannies UK  Granny Dating  Free Granny ... Dating SPANISH Men...... The Ugly Truth !!! TRUTH or MYTH: Latin Americans React to Stereotypes - YouTube The Grandmother Lovers  TRULY - YouTube 200+ Latina Women 20 Foreign Guys  Colombian Dating Going on Dates: USA vs UK 🇺🇸🇬🇧  Our Dating Stories! - YouTube Dating in the UK! - YouTube Black Dating Sites UK - YouTube You Know You're Dating a Spaniard When... - YouTube

The Best Latin Dating Sites for You 2020 -

  1. Latin Women (Stand Up Comedy) - YouTube
  2. Meet Local Grannies UK Granny Dating Free Granny ...
  3. Dating SPANISH Men...... The Ugly Truth !!!
  4. TRUTH or MYTH: Latin Americans React to Stereotypes - YouTube
  5. The Grandmother Lovers TRULY - YouTube
  6. 200+ Latina Women 20 Foreign Guys Colombian Dating
  7. Going on Dates: USA vs UK 🇺🇸🇬🇧 Our Dating Stories! - YouTube
  8. Dating in the UK! - YouTube
  9. Black Dating Sites UK - YouTube
  10. You Know You're Dating a Spaniard When... - YouTube

Hey everyone! A very hyper video for you today... sorry if anyone isn't in the mood! We got talking about how different dating is in the UK compared to the U... From fiery temperament to dancing to machismo.. Latin Americans react to the most common stereotypes. Dating Beyond Borders is a Youtube channel that focuses... Latin women will definitely make your heads turn and your jaws drop because their charm is irresistible. This is also the reason why most men travel to the country of Colombia to look for a girl ... Established since 2008, Black Dating Club is the premier UK dating site for black singles. We have 10,000's of members in the U... From the 'ya veremos' attitude, to the 'eres mejor que el pan' to the mom situation, this what it's like to date a Spaniard, tioo. Behind the scenes, dating ... So this may be my most brutally honest video EVER and apologies in advance if you are a spanish guy and was offended by this but lets talk on the REAL, this has been my experiences. im sitting ... Meet a lot of mature women online! You guys ALWAYS ask us about our relationship, are we siblings? Are we married? Are we a couple? Are we friends? So today we chat about our dating lives and ... Geoff Brown knows what he wants in a woman, he just has to find her. Click here to SUBSCRIBE to our channel: SUBSCRIBE to Barcroft TV: Introducing the grandmother lovers - the young men who only date elderly women! In this documentary, meet 31-y...